03 May 2018 In Cancer
Several scientific and clinical studies have shown an association between chronic alcohol consumption and the occurrence of cancer in humans. The mechanism for alcohol-induced carcinogenesis has not been fully understood, although plausible events include genotoxic effects of acetaldehyde, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species, aberrant metabolism of folate and retinoids, increased estrogen, and genetic polymorphisms. Here, we summarize the impact of alcohol drinking on the risk of cancer development and potential underlying molecular mechanisms. The interactions between alcohol abuse, anti-tumor immune response, tumor growth, and metastasis are complex. However, multiple studies have linked the immunosuppressive effects of alcohol with tumor progression and metastasis. The influence of alcohol on the host immune system and the development of possible effective immunotherapy for cancer in alcoholics are also discussed here. The conclusive biological effects of alcohol on tumor progression and malignancy have not been investigated extensively using an animal model that mimics the human disease. This review provides insights into cancer pathogenesis in alcoholics, alcohol and immune interactions in different cancers, and scope and future of targeted immunotherapeutic modalities in patients with alcohol abuse
03 May 2018 In Cancer
Several scientific and clinical studies have shown an association between chronic alcohol consumption and the occurrence of cancer in humans. The mechanism for alcohol-induced carcinogenesis has not been fully understood, although plausible events include genotoxic effects of acetaldehyde, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species, aberrant metabolism of folate and retinoids, increased estrogen, and genetic polymorphisms. Here, we summarize the impact of alcohol drinking on the risk of cancer development and potential underlying molecular mechanisms. The interactions between alcohol abuse, anti-tumor immune response, tumor growth, and metastasis are complex. However, multiple studies have linked the immunosuppressive effects of alcohol with tumor progression and metastasis. The influence of alcohol on the host immune system and the development of possible effective immunotherapy for cancer in alcoholics are also discussed here. The conclusive biological effects of alcohol on tumor progression and malignancy have not been investigated extensively using an animal model that mimics the human disease. This review provides insights into cancer pathogenesis in alcoholics, alcohol and immune interactions in different cancers, and scope and future of targeted immunotherapeutic modalities in patients with alcohol abuse
26 April 2017 In Cancer

Alcohol consumption by adult women is consistently associated with risk of breast cancer. Several questions regarding alcohol and breast cancer need to be addressed. Menarche to first pregnancy represents a window of time when breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens. Youth alcohol consumption is common in the USA, largely in the form of binge drinking and heavy drinking. Whether alcohol intake acts early in the process of breast tumorigenesis is unclear. This review aims to focus on the influences of timing and patterns of alcohol consumption and the effect of alcohol on intermediate risk markers. We also review possible mechanisms underlying the alcohol-breast cancer association.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

The antioxidant properties of wine have been largely related to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability of phenolic compounds. Polyphenolic compounds are hardly absorbed and quickly transformed into metabolites. Their antioxidant activities just as radical scavenging properties are therefore limited, but it is worth looking to other mechanisms. This study intended to test whether wine consumption affects antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression. For this purpose, eight subjects drank 300 mL of red wine every day for a week and ate a low phenolic diet (LPD + W) specifically designed to avoid interferences from other polyphenols in the diet. The control period was a week with this diet, and volunteers refrained from drinking wine (LPD). Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, and 7 days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were determined in erythrocytes (SOD), plasma (CAT and GR), and blood (GPx). Gene expression was determined in macrophages. Oxidative stress caused by LPD reduced SOD, CAT, and GR activities. After wine consumption, these activities significantly increased (P < 0.05), and this overcame the effect of oxidative stress on enzyme activity. The modulation of CAT activity may be independent of changes in their gene expression, which significantly increased after LPD. However, SOD gene expression increased only during the LPD + W week. Enzyme activities are not all regulated in the same way. The results show that subacute moderate wine ingestion modulated antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, which is important for the prevention of ROS-associated diseases.

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