23 July 2015 In Cancer

Given the adverse effect of alcohol in the development of breast cancer among women in the general population, we evaluated whether a similar association exists among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Information regarding baseline daily alcohol consumption was abstracted from a research questionnaire for 3067 BRCA mutation carriers enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Women were followed biennially until the date of the last follow-up questionnaire, date of breast cancer diagnosis, date of prophylactic bilateral mastectomy, or date of death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for invasive breast cancer associated with alcohol consumed at or prior to completion of the baseline questionnaire. After a mean of 5.4 years of follow-up, we observed 259 incident cases of primary invasive breast cancer. Compared with non-users, the adjusted RRs were 1.06 (95 % CI 0.78-1.44) for ever use and 1.08 (0.79-1.47) for current alcohol use. For women in the highest versus lowest quintile of cumulative alcohol consumption, the RR was 0.94 (95 % CI 0.63-1.40; P trend = 0.65). Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption is not a risk factor for breast cancer among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

16 June 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND: There is limited research examining beverage habits, one of the most habitual dietary behaviors, with mortality risk.

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between coffee, black and green tea, sugar-sweetened beverages (soft drinks and juice), and alcohol and all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

METHODS: A prospective data analysis was conducted with the use of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, including 52,584 Chinese men and women (aged 45-74 y) free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer at baseline (1993-1998) and followed through 2011 with 10,029 deaths. Beverages were examined with all-cause and cause-specific (cancer, CVD, and respiratory disease) mortality risk with the use of Cox proportional hazards regression.

RESULTS: The associations between coffee, black tea, and alcohol intake and all-cause mortality were modified by smoking status. Among never-smokers there was an inverse dose-response association between higher amounts of coffee and black tea intake and all-cause, respiratory-related, and CVD mortality (black tea only). The fully adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality for coffee for <1/d, 1/d, and >/=2/d relative to no coffee intake were 0.89, 0.86, and 0.83, respectively (P-trend = 0.0003). For the same black tea categories the HRs were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.72, respectively (P-trend = 0.0005). Among ever-smokers there was no association between coffee or black tea and the outcomes. Relative to no alcohol, light to moderate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) in never-smokers with a similar magnitude of association in ever-smokers. There was no association between heavy alcohol intake and all-cause mortality in never-smokers and a strong positive association in ever-smokers (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.40, 1.74). Green tea and sugar-sweetened beverages were not associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher coffee and black tea intake was inversely associated with mortality in never-smokers, light to moderate alcohol intake was inversely associated with mortality regardless of smoking status, heavy alcohol intake was positively associated with mortality in ever-smokers, and there was no association between sugar-sweetened beverages and green tea and mortality.

15 June 2015 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake is associated with increased circulating concentrations of sex hormones, which in turn may increase hormone-dependent cancer risk. This association may be modulated by dietary fiber intake, which has been shown to decrease steroid hormone bioavailability (decreased blood concentration and increased sex hormone-binding globulin concentration). However, this potential modulation has not been investigated in any prospective cohort.

OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to study the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (breast, prostate, ovarian, endometrial, and testicular) and to investigate whether dietary fiber intake modulated these associations.

DESIGN: This prospective observational analysis included 3771 women and 2771 men who participated in the Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants study (1994-2007) and completed at least 6 valid 24-h dietary records during the first 2 y of follow-up. After a median follow-up of 12.1 y, 297 incident hormone-dependent cancer cases, including 158 breast and 123 prostate cancers, were diagnosed. Associations were tested via multivariate Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was directly associated with the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.84; P-trend = 0.02) and breast cancer (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.61; P-trend = 0.04) but not prostate cancer (P-trend = 0.3). In stratified analyses (by sex-specific median of dietary fiber intake), alcohol intake was directly associated with hormone-dependent cancer (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.82; P-trend = 0.002), breast cancer (HR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.95; P-trend = 0.02), and prostate cancer (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.65, 2.89; P-trend = 0.02) risk among individuals with low dietary fiber intake but not among their counterparts with higher dietary fiber intake (P-trend = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.6, respectively). The P-interaction between alcohol and dietary fiber intake was statistically significant for prostate cancer (P = 0.01) but not for overall hormone-dependent (P = 0.2) or breast (P = 0.9) cancer.

CONCLUSION: In line with mechanistic hypotheses and experimental data, this prospective study suggested that dietary fiber intake might modulate the association between alcohol intake and risk of hormone-dependent cancer.

This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428

11 May 2015 In General Health

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of psoriasis. However, the association between alcohol intake and risk of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) has been unclear. We evaluated the association between alcohol intake and risk of incident PsA in a large cohort of US women.

METHODS: Our present study included a total of 82,672 US women who provided repeated data on alcohol intake over the followup period (1991-2005). Self-reported PsA was validated using the Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation (PASE) questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted HR and 95% CI for the PsA in association with alcohol intake.

RESULTS: We documented 141 incident PsA cases during 14 years (1,137,763 person-yrs) of followup. Compared to non-drinkers, the multivariate HR for PsA were 0.70 (95% CI 0.48-1.01) for 0.1-14.9 g/day, 1.43 (95% CI 0.67-3.08) for 15.0-29.9 g/day, and 4.45 (95% CI 2.07-9.59) for >/= 30.0 g/day of cumulative average alcohol intake. Risk estimates were generally consistent when using updated alcohol intake and baseline alcohol intake in 1991 as the exposures, and when the analysis was restricted to those who developed psoriasis during the followup.

CONCLUSION: Excessive alcohol intake was associated with an increased risk of incident PsA in a cohort of US women.

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