15 October 2014 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiologic studies have shown inconsistent results for the association between alcohol intake and endometrial cancer risk. Most of the studies, however, assessed alcohol intake after cancer diagnosis, or measured alcohol intake at baseline only.

METHODS: We prospectively examined the association between alcohol intake and endometrial cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study with 68 067 female participants aged 34-59 years in 1980. Alcohol intake was measured several times with validated dietary questionnaires. We calculated cumulative average alcohol intake to represent long-term intakes of individual subjects. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for endometrial cancer risk after controlling for several risk factors simultaneously.

RESULTS: We identified a total of 794 invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma from 1980 to 2010. We found an inverse association among alcohol drinkers (multivariable RR=0.81; 95% CI: 0.68-0.96) compared with nondrinkers. Women with light alcohol intake of /= 30 g (>/= 2 drinks) versus 0 g per day were 0.88, 0.83, and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.49-1.25), respectively. The lower risk among drinkers ( approximately half drink per day) appeared to be stronger for obese women, but no significant interaction by body mass index was found.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides prospective evidence for an inverse association between light alcohol intake ( approximately half drink per day) in the long term and endometrial cancer risk, but above that level no significant association was found.

28 July 2014 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the role of alcohol consumption in development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are scarce. We aimed to examine associations between total alcohol consumption, and specific alcoholic beverages, with hazard of AAA.

METHODS AND RESULTS: -44 715 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and 35 569 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort, aged 46 to 84 years at baseline 1998, constituted study population. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between alcohol consumption, assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, and AAA, identified by means of linkage to the Swedish Inpatient Register and the Swedish Vascular Registry (Swedvasc). Over the 14-year follow-up until December 2011 (1 019 954 person-years), AAA occurred in 1020 men and 194 women. Compared with a consumption of 1 glass of alcohol/week (12 grams of ethanol), the HR of AAA among men who consumed 10 glasses/week was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.68-0.94). Corresponding HR among women who consumed 5 glasses/week was 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.82). Among participants free from cardiovascular disease, total alcohol consumption did not seem to be associated with hazard of the disease. The most commonly consumed alcoholic beverages - beer among men and wine among women - were inversely associated, whereas no association was observed for liquor.

CONCLUSIONS: -Moderate alcohol consumption, specifically wine and beer, was associated with a lower hazard of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The associations between higher doses of alcohol and risk of the disease remain unknown.

21 May 2014 In General Health

Objective. To evaluate the association of alcohol consumption with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in two large prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II).

Methods. The NHS established in 1976 that enrolled 121,701 US female registered nurses. The NHSII began in 1989, enrolling 116,430 female nurses. Lifestyle and environmental exposures have been collected through biennial questionnaires. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire completed every 4 years. The incident RA cases were identified using the connective tissue disease screening questionnaire and a medical record review. Separate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) after adjusting for potential confounders in NHS and NHSII. Pooled HR from two cohorts was estimated using a DerSimonian and Laird random-effect model.

Results. Among 1.90 million years of person-time from 1980 to 2008, 580 incident RA cases were diagnosed in NHS, and among 1.78 million years of person-time from 1989 to 2009, 323 incident RA cases were diagnosed in NHSII. Compared to no use, the pooled multivariable adjusted HR for alcohol use of 5.0-9.9 grams/day (g/d) was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.61-1.00). For seropositive RA cases, the association appeared stronger (HR= 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.95). In addition, Women who drank beer 2-4 times a week had a 31% decreased risk compared with women who never drank beer.

Conclusion. We found a modest association between long-term moderate alcohol drinking and reduced risk of RA. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in other populations.

(c) 2014 American College of Rheumatology

 

 

 

OBJECTIVE: With the use of a new cohort of adolescent subjects, predictors from the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) interview and the Achenbach Youth Self Report (YSR) were combined to model age of first drink (AFD).

METHODS: Subjects consisted of 820 adolescents (ages 14-17) drawn from the current phase of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Three Cox proportional hazards models were considered. Model 1 contained SSAGA variables equivalent to AFD predictors from our previous study: interview age, family history of alcohol dependence, and number of conduct disorder symptoms. Model 2 incorporated 2 additional SSAGA questions (best friends drink and smoked a cigarette before a reported AFD) plus 8 YSR-derived scale scores. Model 3 was a reduced version of model 2, retaining only significant predictors.

RESULTS: Model 2 was a significant improvement over model 1. Model 3 was the best and the most parsimonious of the 3 with respect to likelihood ratio and Wald chi(2) tests and retained only 5 variables from model 2. Included variables were the following: (1) best friends drink, (2) membership in a high-risk alcohol dependence family, (3) number of conduct disorder symptoms, (4) YSR externalizing score, and (5) YSR social problems score.

CONCLUSIONS: Adding variables to those from our original study improved our ability to model the likely age of alcohol initiation. In addition to the SSAGA, the YSR appears to have utility as a research tool to predict the age of alcohol initiation.

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