23 November 2020 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with favorable cardiovascular health (CVH). However, the association between alcohol type and ideal CVH has not been well-established. We examined the relationship between alcohol type and ideal CVH as measured by the American Heart Association's seven CVH metrics.

METHODS: We analyzed data from 6,389 men and women aged 45-84 years from a multi-ethnic cohort free of cardiovascular disease. Alcohol type (wine, beer and liquor) was categorized as never, former, 0 but drink other alcohol types, >0 but 2 drinks/day. A CVH score ranging from 0 to 14 points was created from the seven CVH metrics (Inadequate score, 0-8; average, 9-10; optimal, 11-14). We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the association between alcohol type and CVH, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, health insurance, field site and total calorie intake.

RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of participants was 62 (10) years and 53 % were women. Participants who consumed 1-2 drinks/day of wine had higher odds of optimal CVH scores compared to those who never drank wine [adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.64 (1.12-2.40)]. In comparison to participants who never drank beer, those who consumed >2 drinks/day of beer had lower odds of optimal CVH scores [0.31 (0.14-0.69)]. Additionally, those who consumed >2 drinks/day of liquor had lower odds of optimal scores compared to those who never drank liquor [0.32 (0.16-0.65)].

CONCLUSION: Moderate consumption of wine was associated with favorable CVH. However, heavy consumption of beer or liquor was associated with poorer CVH.

23 November 2020 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Stroke is the most common cardiovascular disorder after heart disease and one of the major causes of death and disability. Mediterranean diet has proven to be an effective means to prevent cardiovascular diseases and may contribute to the prevention of stroke. This overview aims to analyze all reviews that examine the association between Mediterranean diet pattern and stroke.

METHODS: We conducted a literature search on PubMed and Scopus databases, using the keywords "Mediterranean diet" and "Stroke". All studies were selected evaluating the association between the Mediterranean diet and the prevention of stroke and only systematic reviews, meta-analysis and narrative reviews were included.

RESULT: 25 eligible articles were included (16 narrative reviews, 9 systematic reviews, 6 systematic reviews with meta-analyses). The authors stated that Mediterranean diet may be a useful means of preventing stroke, especially the 6 meta-analyses highlighted that high adherence to Mediterranean diet was protective against stroke, with a relative risk ranging from 0,64 (95% CI 0,48-0,88) to 0,90 (95% CI 0,87-0,93). Moderate adherence has not shown significant results.

CONCLUSION: A high adherence to the Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with stroke risk, and can modify the costs of its management, therefore the prevention policies should implement adherence to this healthy diet.

23 November 2020 In Cancer

In 2016, alcohol consumption was one of the leading risk factors for cancer development and cancer death globally, causing an estimated 376 200 cancer deaths, representing 4.2% of all cancer deaths, and 10.3 million cancer disability-adjusted life years lost, representing 4.2% of all cancer disability-adjusted life years lost.

The impact of alcohol consumption on cancer in 2016 varied by age group; the proportion of cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption ranged from 13.9% of cancer deaths among people aged 30-34 years to 2.7% of cancer deaths among people aged 80-84 years.

The burden of cancers caused by alcohol consumption might be decreased through (i) individual-level and societal-level interventions that reduce alcohol consumption, and (ii) measures that target those risk factors that interact with alcohol consumption to increase the risk of cancer or that directly affect the risk of alcohol-related cancers.

25 August 2020 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We prospectively assessed the association between a healthy lifestyle score (HLS) and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Mediterranean cohort.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed up 11,005 participants initially free of diabetes diagnosis in the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort. We evaluated the influence of lifestyle-related factors based on a score previously related to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Only one incident case of T2DM was found among those with a baseline BMI 22 kg/m(2). We measured the baseline adherence of a HLS that included: never smoking, physical activity, Mediterranean diet adherence, moderate alcohol consumption, avoidance of binge drinking, low television exposure, taking a short nap, spending time with friends and working hours. Incident cases of T2DM were self-reported by participants and confirmed by a physician. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were fitted to assess the association between HLS and the incidence of T2DM. After a median follow-up of 12 years, 145 incident cases of T2DM were observed. Among participants with a BMI >22 kg/m(2), the highest category of HLS adherence (7-9 points) showed a significant 46% relatively decreased hazard of T2DM compared with the lowest category (0-4 points) (multivariable adjusted HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.99).

CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to a HLS, including some factors not typically studied, may reduce T2DM risk. Preventive efforts should preferentially focus on weight control. However, this score may promote a comprehensive approach to diabetes prevention beyond weight reduction.

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