06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Minimal data are available regarding the cumulative effects of healthy lifestyle behaviours on cardiometabolic risk. The objective of the present study was to examine a combination of healthy lifestyle behaviours associated with cardiometabolic risk reduction. The analysis was based on a cross-sectional study of 1454 participants from the population-based Lipid Research Clinic's Princeton Follow-up Study. The healthy lifestyle factors included fruit and vegetable intake >/= 5 servings/d, meat intake /= 4 h/week. The combination of healthy lifestyle behaviours was strongly and negatively associated with the presence of cardiometabolic risk, as well as with a composite cardiometabolic risk score after adjustment for race, age, generation and sex. With each additional healthy lifestyle factor, cardiometabolic risk decreased by 31 % (OR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.61, 0.78). A higher healthy lifestyle score was associated with a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk (P for trend < 0.001). Compared with individuals having 0-1 healthy lifestyle behaviours, those with 5 or 6 healthy lifestyle behaviours had a 70 % lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk (OR 0.30; 95 % CI 0.13, 0.67). Healthy lifestyle behaviours including sufficient fruit and vegetable intake, less meat intake, less TV viewing time, abstinence from smoking, modest alcohol intake and regular exercise are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Few studies of the relation of alcohol intake to lower-extremity arterial disease (LEAD) have included clinical events and objective measurements repeated longitudinally. As part of the Cardiovascular Health Study, a study of older adults from four US communities, 5,635 participants reported their use of beer, wine, and spirits yearly. Incident LEAD was identified by hospitalization surveillance. Technicians measured ankle-brachial index 6 years apart in 2,298 participants. A total of 172 cases of LEAD were documented during a mean of 7.5 years of follow-up between 1989 and 1999. Compared with abstention, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71, 1.71) for or =14 drinks per week (p for quadratic trend = 0.04). These relations were consistent within strata of sex, age, and apolipoprotein E genotype, and neither lipids nor inflammatory markers appeared to be important intermediates. Change in ankle-brachial index showed a similar relation (p for quadratic trend = 0.01). Alcohol consumption of 1-13 drinks per week in older adults may be associated with lower risk of LEAD, but heavier drinking is not associated with lower risk.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: The cause of coronary disease inframortality in Spain is unknown. The aim of this study is to identify Spanish towns with very low ischemic heart disease mortality, describe their health and social characteristics, and analyze the relationship with a series of contextual factors.

METHODS: We obtained the number of deaths registered for each of 8,122 Spanish towns in the periods 1989-1998 and 1999-2003. Expected deaths, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), smoothed Relative Risk (RR), and Posterior Probability (PP) of RR > 1 were calculated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Inframortality was defined as any town that displayed an RR below the 10th percentile, an SMR of under 1 for both sexes, and a PP of RR > 1 less than or equal to 0.002 for male and 0.005 for female mortality, during the two periods covered. All the remaining towns, except for those with high mortality classified as "tourist towns", were selected as controls. The association among socioeconomic, health, dietary, lifestyle and vascular risk factors was analyzed using sequential mixed logistic regression models, with province as the random-effects variable.

RESULTS: We identified 32 towns in which ischemic heart disease mortality was half the national rate and four times lower than the European Union rate, situated in lightly populated provinces spread across the northern half of Spain, and revealed a surprising pattern of geographic aggegation for 23 of the 32 towns. Variables related with inframortality were: a less aged population (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.99); a contextual dietary pattern marked by a high fish content (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.38-3.28) and wine consumption (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.08-2.07); and a low prevalence of obesity (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.22-1.01); and, in the case of towns of over 1000 inhabitants, a higher physician-population ratio (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.17-12.3).

CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that dietary and health care factors have an influence on inframortality. The geographical aggregation suggests that other factors with a spatial pattern, e.g., genetic or environmental might also be implicated. These results will have to be confirmed by studies in situ, with objective measurements at an individual level.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use has been consistently found to have a J-shaped association with coronary heart disease, with moderate drinkers exhibiting a decreased risk compared with both heavy drinkers and nondrinkers. However, results of studies of the association between alcohol use and subclinical coronary artery disease are conflicting.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether alcohol is associated with the presence, amount, or progression of coronary calcium over a 2- to 4-y period.

DESIGN: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a prospective community-based cohort study of subclinical cardiovascular disease in a multi-ethnic cohort. In 2000-2002, 6814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease were enrolled at 6 participating centers.

RESULTS: The subjects consisted of 3766 (55.5%) current drinkers, 1635 (24.1%) former drinkers, and 1390 (20.5%) never drinkers. Although light-to-moderate alcohol consumption was associated with lower coronary heart disease risk, we found no evidence of a protective or J-shaped association of alcohol and coronary artery calcium (CAC). In fact, there was evidence that heavy consumption of hard liquor was associated with greater CAC accumulation. Other alcoholic beverages were not associated with CAC prevalence, incidence, or progression.

CONCLUSIONS: This was the first large study to evaluate the association of alcohol with CAC in 4 racial-ethnic groups and to evaluate the progression of calcification. These results suggest that the cardiovascular benefits that may be derived from light-to-moderate alcohol consumption are not mediated through reduced CAC accumulation.

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