06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

The aim of this study was to determine how alcohol consumption influences metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension. The subjects were 3938 male workers being treated with anti-hypertensive drugs and they were divided into four groups by average ethanol intake [non-, light (/=22 and /=44 g/day) drinkers]. The relationships of alcohol intake with atherosclerotic risk factors and metabolic syndrome were investigated. Waist circumference and hemoglobin A1c were significantly smaller and lower, respectively, in light, moderate, and heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. Systolic blood pressure and log-converted triglyceride were significantly higher in heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. HDL cholesterol was significantly higher in all of the drinker groups than in nondrinkers and tended to be higher as alcohol intake increased. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in light, moderate, and heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. Age- and smoking history-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) vs. nondrinkers for metabolic syndrome were significantly low in light drinkers (OR = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.89), moderate drinkers (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.54-0.75) and heavy drinkers (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.57-0.82). The results suggest that alcohol drinking is associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest a lower risk for overweight/obesity in moderate alcohol drinkers. However, the validity of this relationship and its impact on the putative benefits of alcohol consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been well evaluated.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the impact of BMI on the relationship between alcohol consumption and CVD risk factors (blood pressure, lipid panel, and glucose and insulin concentrations) in 27,030 healthy Korean men with no major comorbidities or medication intake seen in a large urban Korean hospital.

RESULTS: BMI and overweight prevalence increased linearly with alcohol intake (P < 0.001). Alcohol intake was also positively associated with blood pressure and triglyceride, HDL, and fasting glucose concentrations (P < 0.001) and negatively associated with LDL and insulin concentrations (P < 0.001). With nondrinkers as the reference group, the odds ratio for having insulin in the top quartile also declined linearly when adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, and exercise, with the heaviest drinkers (>40 g/day) having an odds ratio of 0.71 (95% CI 0.62-0.82) (P < 0.001). The relationship between alcohol and CVD risk factors was similar in normal-weight and overweight individuals.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol intake is associated with increasing BMI and several metabolic abnormalities, including higher fasting glucose. Paradoxically, it is also associated with lower insulin concentrations. The clinical significance of these findings needs further investigation.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several epidemiological studies have established an association between chronic kidney disease (CKD), based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and risk of stroke. However, sex-specific evidence for the relationship between CKD and risk of stroke and its subtypes is still limited. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 12 222 Japanese men and women age 40 to 69 years living in 4 communities under systematic surveillance of stroke incidence to determine the relationship between CKD and risk of stroke and its subtypes. RESULTS: During the 17-year follow-up, there were 566 strokes (327 ischemic and 186 hemorrhagic strokes). GFR was inversely associated with age- and community-adjusted risk of total stroke for both men and women. Compared with the reference group without CKD (GFR >/=60 mL/min per 1.73m(2)), the adjusted risks of total stroke for subjects with CKD (GFR
06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Minimal data are available regarding the cumulative effects of healthy lifestyle behaviours on cardiometabolic risk. The objective of the present study was to examine a combination of healthy lifestyle behaviours associated with cardiometabolic risk reduction. The analysis was based on a cross-sectional study of 1454 participants from the population-based Lipid Research Clinic's Princeton Follow-up Study. The healthy lifestyle factors included fruit and vegetable intake >/= 5 servings/d, meat intake /= 4 h/week. The combination of healthy lifestyle behaviours was strongly and negatively associated with the presence of cardiometabolic risk, as well as with a composite cardiometabolic risk score after adjustment for race, age, generation and sex. With each additional healthy lifestyle factor, cardiometabolic risk decreased by 31 % (OR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.61, 0.78). A higher healthy lifestyle score was associated with a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk (P for trend < 0.001). Compared with individuals having 0-1 healthy lifestyle behaviours, those with 5 or 6 healthy lifestyle behaviours had a 70 % lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk (OR 0.30; 95 % CI 0.13, 0.67). Healthy lifestyle behaviours including sufficient fruit and vegetable intake, less meat intake, less TV viewing time, abstinence from smoking, modest alcohol intake and regular exercise are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk.

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