06 May 2014 In Osteoporosis

BACKGROUND: Past studies of relationships between alcohol and hip fracture have generally focused on total alcohol consumed and not type of alcohol. Different types of alcohol consist of varying components which may affect risk of hip fracture differentially. This study seeks to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption, with a focus on type of alcohol consumed (e.g. beer, wine, or hard liquor) and hip fracture risk in post-menopausal women.

METHODS: The longitudinal cohort consisted of U.S. post-menopausal women aged 50-79 years enrolled between 1993-1998 in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trials and Observational Study (N=115,655).

RESULTS: Women were categorized as non-drinkers, past drinkers, infrequent drinkers and drinkers by preference of alcohol type (i.e. those who preferred wine, beer, hard liquor, or who had no strong preference). Mean alcohol consumption among current drinkers was 3.3 servings per week; this was similar among those who preferred wine, beer and liquor. After adjustment for potential confounders, alcohol preference was strongly correlated with hip fracture risk (p = 0.0167); in particular, women who preferred wine were at lower risk than non-drinkers (OR=0.78; 95% CI 0.64-0.95), past drinkers (OR=0.85; 95% CI 0.72-1.00), infrequent drinkers (OR=0.73; 95% CI 0.61-0.88), hard liquor drinkers (OR=0.87; 95% CI 0.71-1.06), beer drinkers (OR=0.72; 95% CI 0.55-0.95) and those with no strong preference (OR=0.89; 95% CI 0.89; 95% CI 0.73-1.10).

CONCLUSIONS: Preference of alcohol type was associated with hip fracture; women who preferentially consumed wine had a lower risk of hip fracture compared to non-drinkers, past drinkers, and those with other alcohol preferences.

06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether alcohol consumption is associated with incident overweight or obesity in normal-weight, postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study considering baseline alcohol consumption and subsequent weight change over 7 years. SUBJECTS: 15,920 normal-weight (body mass index (BMI): 18.5 to /= 30 kg m(-2)) over 7 years. RESULTS: One-third of the 13,822 women included in the analytical cohort reported no alcohol consumption. BMI differed little between abstainers (22.8+/-1.58 kg m(-2)) and alcohol consumers in the upper quintile (22.7+/-1.53 kg m(-2)). Among normal-weight women, the risk of becoming overweight or obese over a 7-year follow-up period was 35% or 88% lower, respectively, for women in the upper quintile of alcohol intake relative to abstainers (hazard ratio (HR), 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58-0.73; or HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.05-0.25, respectively). Risk for overweight and obesity was not significantly modified by age. Wine consumption showed the greatest protective association for risk of overweight (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68-0.84), followed by liquor (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93) and beer (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-1.00). CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal women of normal weight who report moderate alcohol intake have a reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese over time. Perhaps, weight control measures in this population should target behaviors other than reduction in alcohol for those of normal BMI consuming moderate amounts.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Alcohol and caffeine intakes may play a role in the development of sudden cardiac death (SCD) because of their effects on cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate variability, and inflammation.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the association between long-term alcohol and caffeine intakes and risk of SCD in women.

DESIGN: We examined 93,676 postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1998 and were followed until August 2009. Women completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and again at year 3. We modeled exposure to alcohol 3 ways: by using baseline intake only, a cumulative average of baseline and year 3 intake, and the most recent reported intake (a simple time-varying analysis).

RESULTS: Intake of 5-15 g alcohol/d (about one drink) was associated with a nonsignificantly reduced risk of SCD compared with 0.1-5 g/d of baseline intake (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.02), of cumulative average intake (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.11), and of most recent intake (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.96), with adjustment for age, race, income, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, hormone use, and total energy. No association was found between SCD and total caffeine intake (mg/d) or cups of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeinated tea.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that about one drink per day (or 5.1-15 g/d) may be associated with a reduced risk of SCD in this population; however, this association was only statistically significant for a model using the most recent alcohol intake. Total caffeine, regular coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and regular tea intake were not associated with the risk of SCD.

This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the benefit of combining healthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors in the prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) in women.

METHODS: We used factor analysis to identify a low-risk behavior-based dietary pattern in 24 444 postmenopausal women from the population-based prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort who were free of diagnosed cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus at baseline (September 15, 1997). We also defined 3 low-risk lifestyle factors: nonsmoking, waist-hip ratio less than the 75th percentile (< 0.85), and being physically active (at least 40 minutes of daily walking or bicycling and 1 hour of weekly exercise).

RESULTS: During 6.2 years (151 434 person-years) of follow-up, we ascertained 308 cases of primary MI. Two major identified dietary patterns, "healthy" and "alcohol," were significantly associated with decreased risk of MI. The low-risk diet (high scores for the healthy dietary pattern) characterized by a high intake of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, fish, and legumes, in combination with moderate alcohol consumption (>/= 5 g of alcohol per day), along with the 3 low-risk lifestyle behaviors, was associated with 92% decreased risk (95% confidence interval, 72%-98%) compared with findings in women without any low-risk diet and lifestyle factors. This combination of healthy behaviors, present in 5%, may prevent 77% of MIs in the study population.

CONCLUSION: Most MIs in women may be preventable by consuming a healthy diet and moderate amounts of alcohol, being physically active, not smoking, and maintaining a healthy weight.

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