22 September 2022 In Phenolic compounds

(Poly)phenols have anti-diabetic properties that are mediated through the regulation of the main biomarkers associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (IR)), as well as the modulation of other metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. A wide range of human and pre-clinical studies supports these effects for different plant products containing mixed (poly)phenols (e.g., berries, cocoa, tea) and for some single compounds (e.g., resveratrol). We went through some of the latest human intervention trials and pre-clinical studies looking at (poly)phenols against T2DM to update the current evidence and to examine the progress in this field to achieve consistent proof of the anti-diabetic benefits of these compounds. Overall, the reported effects remain small and highly variable, and the accumulated data are still limited and contradictory, as shown by recent meta-analyses. We found newly published studies with better experimental strategies, but there were also examples of studies that still need to be improved. Herein, we highlight some of the main aspects that still need to be considered in future studies and reinforce the messages that need to be taken on board to achieve consistent evidence of the anti-diabetic effects of (poly)phenols.

26 August 2022 In Phenolic compounds

SCOPE: This paper explores the effects of moderate red wine consumption on the clinical status and symptomatology of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), including the study of the oral and intestinal microbiome.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A case control intervention study in UC patients is designed. Intervention patients (n = 5) consume red wine (250 mL day(-1) ) for 4 weeks whereas control patients (n = 5) do not. Moderate wine consumption significantly (p < 0.05) improves some clinical parameters related to serum iron, and alleviates intestinal symptoms as evaluated by the IBDQ-32 questionnaire. 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicate a non-significant (p > 0.05) increase in bacterial alpha diversity after wine intervention in both saliva and fecal microbiota. Additional comparison of taxonomic data between UC patients (n = 10) and healthy subjects (n = 8) confirm intestinal dysbiosis for the UC patients. Finally, analysis of fecal metabolites (i.e., phenolic acids and SCFAs) indicates a non-significant increase (p > 0.05) for the UC patients that consumed wine.

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate and regular red wine intake seems to improve the clinical status and symptoms of UC patients in the active phase of the disease. However, studies with a greater sample size are required to achieve conclusive results.

15 June 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biological age (BA) is the hypothetical underlying age of an organism and has been proposed as a more powerful predictor of health than chronological age (CA). The difference between BA and CA (Deltaage) reflects the rate of biological aging, with lower values indicating slowed-down aging. We sought to compare the relationship of four a priori-defined dietary patterns, including a traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) and three non-Mediterranean diets, with biological aging (Deltaage) among Italian adults. We also examined distinctive nutritional traits of these diets as potential mediators of such associations.

METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis on a sub-cohort of 4510 subjects (aged >/=35 y; 52.0% women) from the Moli-sani Study (enrolment, 2005-2010). Food intake was recorded by a 188-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score (MDS) was used as exposure and compared with non-Mediterranean dietary patterns, i.e. DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), Palaeolithic and the Nordic diets. A Deep Neural Network based on 36 blood biomarkers was used to compute BA and the resulting Deltaage (BA-CA), which was tested as outcome in multivariable linear regressions adjusted for clinical factors, lifestyles and sociodemographic factors.

RESULTS: In a multivariable-adjusted model, 1 standard deviation increase in the MDS was inversely associated with Deltaage (beta = -0.23; 95%CI -0.40, -0.07), and similar findings were observed with the DASH diet (beta = -0.17; 95%CI -0.33, -0.01). High dietary polyphenol content explained 29.8% (p = 0.04) and 65.8% (p = 0.02) of these associations, respectively, while other nutritional factors analysed (e.g. dietary fibre) were unlikely to be on the pathway. No significant associations were found with either the Palaeolithic or the Nordic diets.

CONCLUSIONS: Increasing adherence to either the traditional MD or the DASH diet was associated with delayed biological aging, possibly through their high polyphenol content.

22 October 2021 In Cardiovascular System

Postmenopausal women are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to changes in lipid profile and body fat, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of urinary tartaric acid, a biomarker of wine consumption, with anthropometric (weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio), blood pressure, and biochemical variables (blood glucose and lipid profile) that may be affected during the menopausal transition.

This sub-study of the PREDIMED (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea) trial included a sample of 230 women aged 60-80 years with high cardiovascular risk at baseline. Urine samples were diluted and filtered, and tartaric acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS).

Correlations between tartaric acid and the study variables were adjusted for age, education level, smoking status, physical activity, BMI, cholesterol-lowering, antihypertensive, and insulin treatment, total energy intake, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and raisins.

A strong association was observed between wine consumption and urinary tartaric acid (0.01 mug/mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.01), p-value < 0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were inversely correlated with urinary tartaric acid (-3.13 mug/mg (-5.54, -0.71), p-value = 0.016 and -3.03 mug/mg (-5.62, -0.42), p-value = 0.027, respectively), whereas other biochemical and anthropometric variables were unrelated. The results suggest that wine consumption may have a positive effect on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women, underpinning its nutraceutical properties.

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