06 May 2014 In Diabetes

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This systematic review examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and long-term complications of type 2 diabetes. Meta-analyses could only be performed for total mortality, mortality from CHD, and CHD incidence, because the availability of articles on other complications was too limited.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search through to September 2005 was performed and the reference lists of relevant articles examined. Among the relevant articles there were six cohort studies reporting on the risk of total mortality and/or fatal and/or incident CHD in alcohol non-consumers and in at least two groups of alcohol consumers.

RESULTS: Statistical pooling showed lower risks in alcohol consumers than in non-consumers (the reference category). The relative risk (RR) of total mortality was 0.64 (95% CI 0.49-0.82) in the or =18 g/day), the RRs of total mortality were not significant. Risks of fatal and total CHD were significantly lower in all three categories of alcohol consumers (<6, 6 to or =18 g/day) than in non-consumers, with RRs ranging from 0.34 to 0.75.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This meta-analysis shows that, as with findings in the general population, moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of mortality and CHD in type 2 diabetic populations.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Atherosclerosis is considered a low-grade inflammatory disease. Polyphenol-rich alcoholic beverages (red wine) have shown a more pronounced antiinflammatory effect than polyphenol-free alcoholic beverages (gin). However, no studies to our knowledge have evaluated the antiinflammatory effects of alcoholic beverages with medium-level polyphenol content such as cava (sparkling wine). We enrolled 20 healthy men (aged 34 +/- 9 y) in a randomized crossover study to receive 30 g ethanol/d as cava or gin for 28 d. Before both interventions, subjects abstained from alcohol for 2 wk. Inflammatory biomarkers of atherosclerosis and expression of adhesion molecules on peripheral leukocytes were measured before and after each intervention. Likewise, dietary intake and exercise were also evaluated. Expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4), Sialyl-Lewis(x) (SLe(x)), and CD40 on monocytes decreased after cava intake (all P < 0.05), whereas only SLe(x) was reduced after gin intake (P = 0.036). Circulating markers of atherosclerosis including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and P-selectin decreased after both interventions (all P < 0.05). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and CD40L were diminished only after cava intake (all P < 0.05). The effects of cava on circulating CD40L, ICAM-1, and MCP-1, and monocyte surface expression of CD40, LFA-1, and VLA-4 were greater than those of gin (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, both cava and gin showed antiinflammatory properties; however, cava had a greater protective effect, probably due its polyphenol content.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Recent studies on the protection afforded by moderate wine consumption against cardiovascular diseases have focused mainly on the activity of red wine in view of its high content of antioxidants, especially polyphenols. White wine lacks polyphenols, but it contains other compounds such as hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic acid) and monophenols (tyrosol), which are known to have antioxidant properties. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effect of white wine in myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury. The experimental rats were gavaged with white wine (Soave Suavia "Le Rive" 2004) at a dosage of 6.5 mL/(kg.rat.day) for 30 days. Rats were divided into four groups: control sham (CS), wine-treated sham (WS), control ischemia (I)/reperfusion (R) (CIR), and wine + IR (WIR). All the rats in both IR groups underwent 30 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 8, 24 h, and 30 days of reperfusion (R). Significant reduction in infarct size (21 vs 39%, n = 6), cardiomyocyte (274 vs 384 counts/100 HPF, n = 6), and endothelial cell apoptosis (387 vs 587 counts/100 HPF) was observed in WIR as compared with CIR after 24 h of reperfusion. Echocardiography demonstrated significant increased fractional shortening (32 vs 22%) and ejection fraction (60 vs 44%) following 30 days of reperfusion in WIR rats compared to CIR ( n = 6). In addition, increased phosphorylation of AKT, Foxo3a, and eNOS were found in WS and WIR, as compared to their respective controls. The gel-shift analysis demonstrated significant upregulation of DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB in the white wine-treated groups. This report demonstrated for the first time that the white wine mediated cardioprotection in ischemic reperfused myocardium is through the PI-3kinase/Akt/FOXO3a/e-NOS/NF-kappaB survival pathway.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System
OBJECTIVE: There is limited knowledge on drinking patterns and the progression of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown conflicting results between alcohol consumption and atherosclerotic progression. We investigated the association between the pattern of binge drinking and the 11-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis in a population-based sample of middle-aged men. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study is a part of the FinDrink Study, based on the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. We investigated the effect of drinking patterns on the changes in maximum and mean intima-media thickness, including changes in maximum plaque height in 751 participants as measured by carotid ultrasound. The increased atherosclerosis progression was statistically significant among those men with binge drinking of >or=6 drinks per session (22.4% of total number of participants) using different covariates in different models according to the mean increase in maximum intima-media thickness (Model 1, p=0.008; Model 2, p=0.031, Model 3, p=0.037) and the mean increase in maximum plaque height (Model 1, p=0.002; Model 2, p=0.012, Model 3, p=0.017). CONCLUSION: Our study shows that binge drinking was associated with an increased atherosclerosis progression during an 11-year follow-up in middle-aged men, independent of the total alcohol consumption
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