23 February 2022 In General Health

Excess alcohol consumption is known to be detrimental to human health. However, the role of light-to-moderate alcohol intake is under investigation for potential certain health benefits-mostly related to the cardiovascular system. Nevertheless, there is no univocal agreement on this matter, and research is still ongoing to clarify whether there might be other potential outcomes affected by alcohol intake. In this regard, there is evidence that excess alcohol intake may negatively influence the risk of osteoporotic fractures.

However, there is no comprehensive evidence of literature assessing the role of alcohol consumption in bone mineral density (BMD) and the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and BMD and risk of osteoporotic fractures. The Embase and MEDLINE electronic databases were searched from their inception to December 2021 for articles providing a quantifiable measurement of alcohol consumption for at least three categories and (1) a measurement of BMD (and dispersion as continuous variables) in some area of the body or (2) risk of osteoporotic fracture provided as relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR), with a 95% confidence interval (CI) as the measure of the association of each category with alcohol intake.

A total of 11 studies including 46,916 individuals with BMD assessment and 8 studies including 240,871 individuals with risk of fracture analysis were included. Compared to non-drinkers, consumption of up to two standard drinks of alcohol per day was correlated with higher lumbar and femur neck BMD values, while up to one standard drink of alcohol was correlated with higher hip BMD compared to no alcohol consumption. Higher risk of hip fractures was found starting from three standard drinks of alcohol per day (RR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04; 1.69 for three alcoholic drinks/d, and RR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.23; 2.05 for four alcoholic drinks/d) compared to no alcohol consumption, with no evidence of heterogeneity. Concerning the risk of any osteoporotic fractures, the risk steadily increased with higher intake of alcohol, although never reaching statistical significance.

In conclusion, there is consistent evidence that increased alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of osteoporotic hip fracture; however, the role of alcohol at lower doses is uncertain, as BMD was even higher in light drinkers compared to abstainers.

26 November 2019 In General Health

The prevention of bone mass loss and related complications associated with osteoporosis is a significant public health issue. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is favorably associated with bone health, a potentially modifiable risk factor. The objective of this research was to determine MD adherence in a sample of women with and without osteoporosis. In this observational case-control study of 139 women (64 women with and 75 without osteoporosis) conducted in a primary-care health center in Girona (Spain), MD adherence, lifestyle, physical exercise, tobacco and alcohol consumption, pathological antecedents, and FRAX index scores were analyzed. Logistic multilinear regression modeling to explore the relationship between the MD and bone fracture risk indicated that better MD adherence was associated with a lower bone risk fracture. Non-pharmacological preventive strategies to reduce bone fracture risk were also reviewed to explore the role of lifestyle and diet in bone mass maintenance and bone fracture prevention.

22 February 2019 In General Health

The determination of appropriate dietary strategies for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases remains a challenging and highly relevant issue worldwide. Epidemiological dietary interventions have been studied for decades with contrasting impacts on human health. Moreover, research scientists and physicians have long debated diets encouraging alcohol intake, such as the Mediterranean and French-style diets, with regard to their impact on human health. Understanding the effects of these diets may help to improve in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, further studies are warranted to determine which individual food components, or combinations thereof, have a beneficial impact on different diseases, since a large number of different compounds may occur in a single food, and their fate in vivo is difficult to measure. Most explanations for the positive effects of Mediterranean-style diet, and of the French paradox, have focused largely on the beneficial properties of antioxidants, among other compounds/metabolites, in foods and red wine. Wine is a traditional alcoholic beverage that has been associated with both healthy and harmful effects. Not withstanding some doubts, there is reasonable unanimity among researchers as to the beneficial effects of moderate wine consumption on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and longevity, which have been ascribed to polyphenolic compounds present in wine. Despite this, conflicting findings regarding the impact of alcohol consumption on human health, and contradictory findings concerning the effects of non-alcoholic wine components such as resveratrol, have led to confusion among consumers. In addition to these contradictions and misconceptions, there is a paucity of human research studies confirming known positive effects of polyphenols in vivo. Furthermore, studies balancing both known and unknown prognostic factors have mostly been conducted in vitro or using animal models. Moreover, current studies have shifted focus from red wine to dairy products, such as cheese, to explain the French paradox. The aim of this review is to highlight the contradictions, misconceptions, and scientific facts about wines and diets, giving special focus to the Mediterranean and French diets in disease prevention and human health improvement. To answer the multiplicity of questions regarding the effects of diet and specific diet components on health, and to relieve consumer uncertainty and promote health, comprehensive cross-demographic studies using the latest technologies, which include foodomics and integrated omics approaches, are warranted.

11 May 2015 In General Health

Wine is a traditional beverage that has been associated with both healthy and harmful effects. Conceptions like the so-called "French paradox" or the beneficial impact of the Mediterranean diet suggest benefit. Wine has a complex composition, which is affected by whether it is red or white or by other variables, like the variety of grapes or others. Alcohol and phenolic compounds have been attributed a participation in the benefits ascribed to wine. The case of alcohol has been extensively studied, but the key question is whether wine offers additional benefits. Resveratrol, a non-flavonoid compound, and quercetin, a flavonol, have received particular attention. There is much experimental work confirming a beneficial balance for both substances, particularly resveratrol, in various organs and systems. The pharmacological dosages used in many of those experiments have shed doubt, however, on the clinical translation of those findings. Clinical studies are limited by their observational nature as well as for the difficulties to abstract the benefits of wine from other confounders. Notwithstanding the doubts, there is reasonable unanimity in beneficial effects of moderate wine consumption in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, maybe neurological diseases, and longevity. Observations are less enthusiastic in what refers to cancer. While considering these limitations, clinicians may spread the message that the balance of moderate wine consumption seems beneficial.

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