05 June 2020 In Cardiovascular System

Previous studies reported an inverse association between healthy dietary patterns (such as Mediterranean diet) and the incidence of cardiovascular events. As the mechanism accounting for cardiovascular disease is prevalently due to the atherothrombosis, where a pivotal role is played by platelet activation, it would be arguable that diets with protective effects against cardiovascular disease exert an anti-atherothrombotic effect via inhibition of platelet activation.

There are several and sparse typologies of studies, which investigated if single nutrients by diets recognized as having cardiovascular protection may exert an antithrombotic effect. The most investigated nutrients are key components of the Mediterranean diets such as fruits and vegetables, fish, olive oil, and wine; other diets with protective effects include nuts and cocoa.

Here we summarize experimental and human interventional studies which investigated the antithrombotic effects of such nutrients in experimental models of thrombosis or analyzed biomarkers of clotting, platelet, and fibrinolysis activation in human; furthermore in vitro studies explored the underlying mechanism at level of several cell lines such as platelets or endothelial cells.

In this context, we analyzed if nutrients affect simultaneously or separately clotting, platelet, and fibrinolysis pathways giving special attention to the relationship between oxidative stress and thrombosis as most nutrients are believed to possess antioxidant properties.

26 November 2019 In Diabetes

A growing interest has emerged in the beneficial effects of plant-based diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The Mediterranean diet, one of the most widely evaluated dietary patterns in scientific literature, includes in its nutrients two fluid foods: olive oil, as the main source of fats, and a low-to-moderate consumption of wine, mainly red, particularly during meals. Current mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include a reduction in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, improvement in lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, as well as antithrombotic properties. Most of these effects are attributable to bioactive ingredients including polyphenols, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Polyphenols are a heterogeneous group of phytochemicals containing phenol rings. The principal classes of red wine polyphenols include flavonols (quercetin and myricetin), flavanols (catechin and epicatechin), anthocyanin and stilbenes (resveratrol). Olive oil has at least 30 phenolic compounds. Among them, the main are simple phenols (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), secoroids and lignans. The present narrative review focuses on phenols, part of red wine and virgin olive oil, discussing the evidence of their effects on lipids, blood pressure, atheromatous plaque and glucose metabolism.

26 November 2019 In Cardiovascular System

A growing interest has emerged in the beneficial effects of plant-based diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The Mediterranean diet, one of the most widely evaluated dietary patterns in scientific literature, includes in its nutrients two fluid foods: olive oil, as the main source of fats, and a low-to-moderate consumption of wine, mainly red, particularly during meals. Current mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include a reduction in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, improvement in lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, as well as antithrombotic properties. Most of these effects are attributable to bioactive ingredients including polyphenols, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Polyphenols are a heterogeneous group of phytochemicals containing phenol rings. The principal classes of red wine polyphenols include flavonols (quercetin and myricetin), flavanols (catechin and epicatechin), anthocyanin and stilbenes (resveratrol). Olive oil has at least 30 phenolic compounds. Among them, the main are simple phenols (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), secoroids and lignans. The present narrative review focuses on phenols, part of red wine and virgin olive oil, discussing the evidence of their effects on lipids, blood pressure, atheromatous plaque and glucose metabolism.

09 August 2019 In Liver Disease

BACKGROUND: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is thought to reduce liver steatosis.

OBJECTIVES: To explore the associations with liver steatosis of 3 different diets: a MedDiet + extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), MedDiet + nuts, or a control diet.

METHODS: This was a subgroup analysis nested within a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial, PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED trial: ISRCTN35739639), aimed at assessing the effect of a MedDiet on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. One hundred men and women (mean age: 64 +/- 6 y), at high cardiovascular risk (62% with type 2 diabetes) from the Bellvitge-PREDIMED center were randomly assigned to a MedDiet supplemented with EVOO, a MedDiet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce all dietary fat). No recommendations to lose weight or increase physical activity were given. Main measurements were the percentage of liver fat and the diagnosis of steatosis, which were determined by NMR imaging. The association of diet with liver fat content was analyzed by bivariate analysis after a median follow-up of 3 y.

RESULTS: Baseline adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors were similar among the 3 treatment arms. At 3 y after the intervention hepatic steatosis was present in 3 (8.8%), 12 (33.3%), and 10 (33.3%) of the participants in the MedDiet + EVOO, MedDiet + nuts, and control diet groups, respectively (P = 0.027). Respective mean values of liver fat content were 1.2%, 2.7%, and 4.1% (P = 0.07). A tendency toward significance was observed for the MedDiet + EVOO group compared with the control group. Median values of urinary 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid/creatinine concentrations were significantly (P = 0.001) lower in the MedDiet + EVOO (2.3 ng/mg) than in the MedDiet + nuts (5.0 ng/mg) and control (3.9 ng/mg) groups. No differences in adiposity or glycemic control changes were seen between groups.

CONCLUSIONS: An energy-unrestricted MedDiet supplemented with EVOO, a food with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is associated with a reduced prevalence of hepatic steatosis in older individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

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