23 November 2020 In Phenolic compounds

Due to medical advances and lifestyle changes, population life expectancy has increased. For this reason, it is important to achieve healthy aging by reducing the risk factors causing damage and pathologies associated with age. Through nutrition, one of the pillars of health, we are able to modify these factors through modulation of the intestinal microbiota.

The Mediterranean and Oriental diets are proof of this, as well as the components present in them, such as fiber and polyphenols. These generate beneficial effects on the body thanks, in part, to their interaction with intestinal bacteria. Likewise, the low consumption of products with high fat content favors the state of the microbiota, contributing to the maintenance of good health.

25 August 2020 In General Health

Understanding how dietary nutrients modulate the gut microbiome is of great interest for the development of food products and eating patterns for combatting the global burden of non-communicable diseases. In this narrative review we assess scientific studies published from 2005 to 2019 that evaluated the effect of micro- and macro-nutrients on the composition of the gut microbiome using in vitro and in vivo models, and human clinical trials.

The clinical evidence for micronutrients is less clear and generally lacking. However, preclinical evidence suggests that red wine- and tea-derived polyphenols and vitamin D can modulate potentially beneficial bacteria.

Current research shows consistent clinical evidence that dietary fibers, including arabinoxylans, galacto-oligosaccharides, inulin, and oligofructose, promote a range of beneficial bacteria and suppress potentially detrimental species. The preclinical evidence suggests that both the quantity and type of fat modulate both beneficial and potentially detrimental microbes, as well as the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio in the gut.

Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that the type and amount of proteins in the diet has substantial and differential effects on the gut microbiota. Further clinical investigation of the effect of micronutrients and macronutrients on the microbiome and metabolome is warranted, along with understanding how this influences host health.

25 August 2020 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake is widely assumed to contribute to excess body fatness, especially among young men; however, the evidence is inconsistent. We have addressed this research question by investigating associations between reported alcohol consumption and body composition from large representative national surveys in a high alcohol-consuming country with a high obesity prevalence.

METHODS: The present study comprised a secondary analysis of combined cross-sectional nationally representative Scottish Health Surveys (1995-2010). Reported alcohol-drinking frequency was divided into five groups: from 'nonfrequent drinking' (reference) to daily/'almost every day' among 35 837 representative adults [mean (SD) age: 42.7 (12.7) years (range 18-64 years)]. Quantitative alcohol consumption was categorised into seven groups: from '1-7 to >/=50 10 g units per week'. Regression models against measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were adjusted for age, physical activity, income, smoking, deprivation category and economic status.

RESULTS: Among alcohol-consuming men, heavier drinking (21-28 units per week) was associated with a higher BMI by +1.4 kg m(-2) [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.38-1.43] and higher WC by +3.4 cm (95% CI = 3.2-3.6) than drinking 1-7 units per week. However, those who reported daily drinking frequency were associated with a lower BMI by -2.45 kg m(-2) (95% CI = -2.4 to -2.5) and lower WC by -3.7 cm (95% CI = -3.3 to -4.0) than those who reported less-frequent drinking. Similar associations were found for women. Most of these associations were restricted to subjects aged >30 years. Unexplained variances in BMI and WC are large.

CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative alcohol consumption and frequency of consumption were positively and inversely associated, respectively, with both BMI and WC among alcohol-consuming adults. Surveys are needed that evaluate both the quantity and frequency of consumption. The lowest BMI and WC were associated with a 'Mediterranean' drinking style (i.e. relatively little, but more frequently)

25 August 2020 In General Health

PURPOSE: The health benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been widely studied. However, controversy remains for one of its components: alcohol intake. We aimed to assess the joint effect of adherence to the MedDiet and alcohol-drinking pattern on all-cause mortality.

METHODS: We used data from 20,506 subjects from a prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. Adherence to the MedDiet was operationalized using four different dietary indexes and then categorized in low or high adherence, according to the median score. Alcohol-drinking pattern was evaluated with the previously defined the Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern (MADP), grouped into three categories of adherence (low, moderate and high adherence) and a fourth category for abstainers. The outcome was all-cause mortality.

RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.1 years, we observed 460 deaths. No statistically significant supra-multiplicative interaction between the two exposures was found. Low adherence to both the MedDiet and MADP was associated with higher all-cause mortality compared to high adherence to both exposures [multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-3.07]. Similar results were found for cancer mortality and cardiovascular mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the combined effect of the MedDiet and MADP was not significantly higher than the product of their individual effects, a low adherence to both the MedDiet and MADP was associated with higher rates of all-cause mortality. This report also shows the usefulness of the dietary pattern approach applied to alcohol intake and of including the drinking pattern as another component of the MedDiet.

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