26 November 2015 In Pregnant Women

OBJECTIVES: Despite potential health risks for women and children, one in five women report alcohol use during pregnancy and a significant proportion of those who quit during pregnancy return to drinking post-delivery. This study seeks to understand the longitudinal patterns of alcohol consumption before, during pregnancy and post-delivery, and the role of maternal characteristics for purposes of informing prevention design.

METHODS: General growth mixture models were used to describe the average developmental patterns of maternal weekly drinking quantity at six time points, from preconception through child entering kindergarten, as well as heterogeneity in these patterns among 9100 mothers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study representing the 2001 US national birth cohort.

RESULTS: Four distinct classes of mothers were defined by their longitudinal alcohol consumption patterns: Low Probability Drinkers (50.3 %), Escalating Risk Drinkers (12.0 %), Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (27.4 %), and Early Parenting Quitters (10.2 %). Heterogeneous covariate associations were observed. For example, mothers who gave birth after age 36 were twice as likely to be Escalating Risk Drinkers and Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (vs Low Probability Drinkers), but not more likely to be Early Parenting Quitters, when compared to mothers who gave birth between the ages of 26 and 35.

CONCLUSIONS: for practice There is significant heterogeneity in maternal longitudinal alcohol use patterns during the perinatal period. Baseline maternal characteristics and behavior associated with these heterogeneous patterns provide valuable tools to identify potential risky drinkers during this critical time period and may be synthesized to tailor pre- and postnatal clinical counseling protocols.

28 August 2015 In Pregnant Women

OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy, and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between maternal alcohol consumption and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted.

DESIGN: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles catalogued between their inception and February 16, 2015; we identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal alcohol consumption and CHD risk. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of the retrieved articles and extracted data from them. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled by random-effects or fixed-effects models.

RESULTS: From the 1527 references, a total of 19 case-control studies and four cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The summary of 23 studies related to CHDs indicated an overall pooled relative risk of 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 0.96, 1.29) among mothers drinking before or during pregnancy. Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 196.61, P < .001, I2 = 88.8%) with no publication bias (Egger's test: P = .157). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among studies.

CONCLUSION: In summary, this meta-analysis provided no positive association between maternal alcohol consumption and risk of CHDs.

23 January 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

The study identifies changes in selected ("unplanned") socio-demographic and economic factors as well as in (planned) political measures that are most strongly correlated with changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol consumption-related harm between 1961 and 2006 in Austria. During the period of investigation consumption increased until the early 1970s, dropped during the next decade and have leveled off since. Increasing urbanization, female employment and average age of mothers at their child births are associated with the best time series model for the interpretation of consumption changes. The results regarding alcohol control policies and their impact on consumption were paradoxical. Study limitations were noted pointing up the necessity to improve indicators and concepts.

23 January 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

AIMS: We investigated the prevalence of various parental pro-drinking practices and its association with parental drinking status.

METHODS: A school-based survey was completed by 2200 students (mean age 14.8, SD 2.0; boys 51.4%) from 4 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Students reported whether they had ever experienced each of nine parental pro-drinking practices (PPDPs).

RESULTS: Overall, 67.5% of students reported at least one PPDP, but the prevalence was much higher if both parents were drinkers (89.0%) compared with non-drinkers (38.8%). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% CI) of experiencing at least one PPDP was 6.79 (4.98, 9.26) if either parent drank and 15.71 (10.50, 23.50) if both drank compared with none (P for trend <0.001). Compared with non-drinking, the AORs (95% CI) of experiencing at least one PPDP for occasional drinking and frequent drinking were 6.72 (5.03, 8.98) and 18.11 (9.88, 33.18) in fathers (P for trend <0.001), and 7.33 (5.15, 10.44) and 5.33 (1.98, 14.45) in mothers.

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PPDPs was generally low in non-drinking parents, but increased dramatically with the number of drinking parents and the frequency of paternal drinking.

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