15 October 2014 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

The study identifies changes in selected ("unplanned") socio-demographic and economic factors as well as in (planned) political measures that are most strongly correlated with changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol consumption-related harm between 1961 and 2006 in Austria. During the period of investigation consumption increased until the early 1970s, dropped during the next decade and have leveled off since. Increasing urbanization, female employment and average age of mothers at their child births are associated with the best time series model for the interpretation of consumption changes. The results regarding alcohol control policies and their impact on consumption were paradoxical. Study limitations were noted pointing up the necessity to improve indicators and concepts.

15 October 2014 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

AIMS: We investigated the prevalence of various parental pro-drinking practices and its association with parental drinking status.

METHODS: A school-based survey was completed by 2200 students (mean age 14.8, SD 2.0; boys 51.4%) from 4 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Students reported whether they had ever experienced each of nine parental pro-drinking practices (PPDPs).

RESULTS: Overall, 67.5% of students reported at least one PPDP, but the prevalence was much higher if both parents were drinkers (89.0%) compared with non-drinkers (38.8%). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% CI) of experiencing at least one PPDP was 6.79 (4.98, 9.26) if either parent drank and 15.71 (10.50, 23.50) if both drank compared with none (P for trend <0.001). Compared with non-drinking, the AORs (95% CI) of experiencing at least one PPDP for occasional drinking and frequent drinking were 6.72 (5.03, 8.98) and 18.11 (9.88, 33.18) in fathers (P for trend <0.001), and 7.33 (5.15, 10.44) and 5.33 (1.98, 14.45) in mothers.

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PPDPs was generally low in non-drinking parents, but increased dramatically with the number of drinking parents and the frequency of paternal drinking.

AIMS: Parental attitudes and behaviour with regard to young people and alcohol are associated with teenagers' drinking behaviour. This study examined the association between sociodemographic factors among parents and parental attitudes and behaviour with regard to alcohol and adolescents.

METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent to parents of children aged 12-16 years in six Swedish municipalities. Seven hundred and ninety-five parents were included in the study. Seven sociodemographic factors and four questions identifying parental attitudes and behaviour were examined. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and confidence intervals.

RESULTS: The study showed that fathers were more likely than mothers to report that children had been drinking or tasting alcohol at home. Parents who answered the questionnaire together also stated that their children had been served alcohol at home to a larger extent than mothers. Fathers, single parents and parents with older children were more likely to have non-restrictive attitudes towards adolescents and alcohol than mothers, parents living in a household with more than one adult, and parents with younger children. Factors such as age of the parents, employment status and numbers of children in the household were not associated with either parental attitudes or behaviour.

CONCLUSIONS: The sex of the responding parent was the only sociodemographic factor that was associated with both parental attitudes and behaviour. Fathers were more likely than mothers to have a non-restrictive attitude. The fathers also reported to a greater extent than mothers that children had been drinking or tasting alcohol at home.

Objective This study examines whether a mother's style of parenting at child age 5 years predicts problematic patterns of drinking in adolescence, after controlling for relevant individual, maternal and social risk factors.

Methods Data were used from the Mater-University Study of Pregnancy, an Australian longitudinal study of mothers and their children from pregnancy to when the children were 14 years of age. Logistic regression analyses examined whether maternal parenting practices at child age 5 predicted problematic drinking patterns in adolescence, after controlling for a range of confounding covariates.

Results Physical punishment at child age 5 did not predict adolescent alcohol problems at follow-up. Results indicated that low maternal control at child age 5 predicted adolescent occasional drinking patterns at age 14. More frequent maternal partner change coupled with lower levels of control was the strongest predictor of more problematic patterns of drinking by adolescents.

Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of family structure and level of parental control in the development of problematic patterns of drinking in adolescence.

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