23 January 2015 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Studies on the relation between alcohol consumption and risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), a precursor of colorectal cancer, have been inconsistent. AIM: A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association and the dose-response of alcohol with CRA.

METHODS: A literature search was performed on PubMed to identify relevant studies published up to January 2014. A fixed or random effects model was used to estimate summarised relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between alcohol intake and CRA risk. Statistical heterogeneity between studies was assessed with the chi(2) statistic and quantified by I(2).

RESULTS: Twenty-three case-control studies and two cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. All drinkers were associated with 17% increased risk for CRA, compared with nondrinkers or occasional alcohol drinkers. The dose-response analysis demonstrated that for drinkers of 10, 25, 50 and 100 g/day alcohol consumption, the estimated RRs of CRA were 1.02 (95% CI 0.89-1.16), 1.06 (95% CI 0.92-1.20), 1.16 (95% CI 1.02-1.33) and 1.61 (95% CI 1.42-1.84) respectively, in comparison with non-/occasional drinkers. The risks were consistent in the subgroup analyses of gender and site of adenoma, while it was stronger in European studies than the studies in the US and Asia.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that alcohol intake is related to a significant increase of risk for colrectal adenoma.

04 December 2014 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Studies on the relation between alcohol consumption and risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), a precursor of colorectal cancer, have been inconsistent. AIM: A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association and the dose-response of alcohol with CRA.

METHODS: A literature search was performed on PubMed to identify relevant studies published up to January 2014. A fixed or random effects model was used to estimate summarised relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between alcohol intake and CRA risk. Statistical heterogeneity between studies was assessed with the chi(2) statistic and quantified by I(2).

RESULTS: Twenty-three case-control studies and two cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. All drinkers were associated with 17% increased risk for CRA, compared with nondrinkers or occasional alcohol drinkers. The dose-response analysis demonstrated that for drinkers of 10, 25, 50 and 100 g/day alcohol consumption, the estimated RRs of CRA were 1.02 (95% CI 0.89-1.16), 1.06 (95% CI 0.92-1.20), 1.16 (95% CI 1.02-1.33) and 1.61 (95% CI 1.42-1.84) respectively, in comparison with non-/occasional drinkers. The risks were consistent in the subgroup analyses of gender and site of adenoma, while it was stronger in European studies than the studies in the US and Asia.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that alcohol intake is related to a significant increase of risk for colrectal adenoma.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, leading to elevated cAMP levels. The resulting activation of Epac1, a cAMP effector protein, increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels and activates the CamKKbeta-AMPK pathway via phospholipase C and the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+)-release channel. As a consequence, resveratrol increases NAD(+) and the activity of Sirt1. Inhibiting PDE4 with rolipram reproduces all of the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, including prevention of diet-induced obesity and an increase in mitochondrial function, physical stamina, and glucose tolerance in mice. Therefore, administration of PDE4 inhibitors may also protect against and ameliorate the symptoms of metabolic diseases associated with aging.

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