28 September 2023 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risks of certain site-specific cancers and decreased risks of some other cancers. There is, however, little reliable evidence as to whether the alcohol-associated risks for specific cancers are modified by smoking, body mass index (BMI) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use.

METHODS: In the prospective UK Million Women Study, 1,233,177 postmenopausal women without prior cancer, mean age 56 (SD 5) years, reported their alcohol consumption in median year 1998 (IQR 1998-1999), and were followed by record-linkage for incident cancer. 438,056 women who drank no alcohol or < 1 drink/week were excluded. Cox regression yielded adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 21 cancers by alcohol amount; statistical significance of interactions with smoking, BMI and MHT use was assessed after allowing for multiple testing.

RESULTS: In 795,121 participants, mean consumption was 6.7 (SD 6.4) alcoholic drinks/week. During 17 (SD 5) years of follow-up, 140,203 incident cancers were recorded. There was strong evidence for a substantial association between alcohol intake and risk of upper aero-digestive cancers (oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, oral cavity, pharynx and larynx; RR per 1 drink/day = 1.38 [95% CI 1.31-1.46]). There was also strong evidence for more moderate positive associations with breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancer (RRs per 1 drink/day = 1.12 [1.10-1.14], 1.10 [1.07-1.13], 1.08 [1.02-1.13] respectively), and moderate negative associations with thyroid cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, renal cell carcinoma and multiple myeloma (RRs per 1 drink/day = 0.79 [0.70-0.89], 0.91 [0.86-0.95], 0.88 [0.83-0.94], 0.90 [0.84-0.97] respectively). Significant interactions between alcohol and smoking were seen for upper aero-digestive cancers (RRs per 1 drink/day = 1.66 [1.54-1.79], 1.23 [1.11-1.36], 1.12 [1.01-1.25] in current, past, and never smokers respectively). BMI and MHT did not significantly modify any alcohol-associated risks.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide robust evidence that greater alcohol intake, even within relatively moderate ranges, increases the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancer, and probably decreases the risk of thyroid cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, renal cell carcinoma and multiple myeloma. Associations of alcohol intake with cancer risk were not modified by MHT use, adiposity or smoking, except in the case of upper aero-digestive cancers, where the alcohol-associated risk was largely confined to smokers.

18 August 2023 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown inconsistent findings regarding the association of light to moderate alcohol consumption with cause-specific mortality. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prospective association of alcohol consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the US population.

METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study of adults aged 18 years or older in the National Health Interview Survey (1997 to 2014) with linkage to the National Death Index records through December 31, 2019. Self-reported alcohol consumption was categorized into seven groups (lifetime abstainers; former infrequent or regular drinkers; and current infrequent, light, moderate, or heavy drinkers). The main outcome was all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 12.65 years, among the 918,529 participants (mean age 46.1 years; 48.0% male), 141,512 adults died from all causes, 43,979 from cardiovascular disease (CVD), 33,222 from cancer, 8246 from chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, 5572 from accidents (unintentional injuries), 4776 from Alzheimer's disease, 4845 from diabetes mellitus, 2815 from influenza and pneumonia, and 2692 from nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis. Compared with lifetime abstainers, current infrequent, light, or moderate drinkers were at a lower risk of mortality from all causes [infrequent-hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.84 to 0.90; light: 0.77; 0.75 to 0.79; moderate 0.82; 0.80 to 0.85], CVD, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and influenza and pneumonia. Also, light or moderate drinkers were associated with lower risk of mortality from diabetes mellitus and nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis. In contrast, heavy drinkers had a significantly higher risk of mortality from all causes, cancer, and accidents (unintentional injuries). Furthermore, binge drinking >/= 1 day/week was associated with a higher risk of mortality from all causes (1.15; 1.09 to 1.22), cancer (1.22; 1.10 to 1.35), and accidents (unintentional injuries) (1.39; 1.11 to 1.74).

CONCLUSIONS: Infrequent, light, and moderate alcohol consumption were inversely associated with mortality from all causes, CVD, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and influenza and pneumonia. Light or moderate alcohol consumption might also have a beneficial effect on mortality from diabetes mellitus and nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis. However, heavy or binge had a higher risk of all-cause, cancer, and accidents (unintentional injuries) mortality.

31 March 2023 In Phenolic compounds

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota profiles are closely related to cardiovascular diseases through mechanisms that include the reported deleterious effects of metabolites, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which have been studied as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Moderate red wine (RW) consumption is reportedly cardioprotective, possibly by affecting the gut microbiota.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of RW consumption on the gut microbiota, plasma TMAO, and the plasma metabolome in men with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) using a multiomics assessment in a crossover trial. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, crossover, controlled trial involving 42 men (average age, 60 y) with documented CAD comparing 3-wk RW consumption (250 mL/d, 5 d/wk) with an equal period of alcohol abstention, both preceded by a 2-wk washout period.

The gut microbiota was analyzed via 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Plasma TMAO was evaluated by LC-MS/MS. The plasma metabolome of 20 randomly selected participants was evaluated by ultra-high-performance LC-MS/MS. The effect of RW consumption was assessed by individual comparisons using paired tests during the abstention and RW periods.

RESULTS: Plasma TMAO did not differ between RW intervention and alcohol abstention, and TMAO concentrations showed low intraindividual concordance over time, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.049 during the control period. After RW consumption, there was significant remodeling of the gut microbiota, with a difference in beta diversity and predominance of Parasutterella, Ruminococcaceae, several Bacteroides species, and Prevotella. Plasma metabolomic analysis revealed significant changes in metabolites after RW consumption, consistent with improved redox homeostasis.

CONCLUSIONS: Modulation of the gut microbiota may contribute to the putative cardiovascular benefits of moderate RW consumption. The low intraindividual concordance of TMAO presents challenges regarding its role as a cardiovascular risk biomarker at the individual level. This study was registered at clinical trials.gov as NCT03232099.

31 March 2023 In Dementia

IMPORTANCE: The impact of serial changes in alcohol consumption on dementia risk has rarely been investigated to date.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of comprehensive patterns of changes in alcohol consumption with the incidence of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD).

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a retrospective cohort study.

Data were obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Adults aged 40 years and older underwent 2 health examinations in 2009 and 2011. The cohort was assessed until December 31, 2018, and statistical analysis was performed in December 2021.

EXPOSURES: Alcohol consumption level was categorized into none (0 g per day), mild (/=30 g per day) drinking. On the basis of changes in alcohol consumption level from 2009 to 2011, participants were categorized into the following groups: nondrinker, quitter, reducer, sustainer, and increaser.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was newly diagnosed AD, VaD, or other dementia.

RESULTS: Among 3 933 382 participants (mean [SD] age, 55.0 [9.6] years; 2 037 948 men [51.8%]), during a mean (SD) follow-up of 6.3 (0.7) years, there were 100 282 cases of all-cause dementia, 79 982 cases of AD, and 11 085 cases of VaD. Compared with sustained nondrinking, sustained mild (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.77-0.81) and moderate (aHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.79-0.88) drinking were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause dementia, whereas sustained heavy drinking was associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia (aHR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12).

Compared with sustained levels of drinking, reducing alcohol consumption from a heavy to a moderate level (aHR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99) and the initiation of mild alcohol consumption (aHR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.96) were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause dementia. Increasers and quitters exhibited an increased risk of all-cause dementia compared with sustainers. The trends in AD and VaD remained consistent.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study of a Korean population, decreased risk of dementia was associated with maintaining mild to moderate alcohol consumption, reducing alcohol consumption from a heavy to a moderate level, and the initiation of mild alcohol consumption, suggesting that the threshold of alcohol consumption for dementia risk reduction is low.

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