22 June 2017 In General Health

Alcohol consumption is a complex trait determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and is correlated with the risk of alcohol use disorders. Although a small number of genetic loci have been reported to be associated with variation in alcohol consumption, genetic factors are estimated to explain about half of the variance in alcohol consumption, suggesting that additional loci remain to be discovered. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of alcohol consumption in the large Genetic Epidemiology Research in Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort, in four race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic whites, Hispanic/Latinos, East Asians and African Americans. We examined two statistically independent phenotypes reflecting subjects' alcohol consumption during the past year, based on self-reported information: any alcohol intake (drinker/non-drinker status) and the regular quantity of drinks consumed per week (drinks/week) among drinkers. We assessed these two alcohol consumption phenotypes in each race/ethnicity group, and in a combined trans-ethnic meta-analysis comprising a total of 86 627 individuals. We observed the strongest association between the previously reported single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs671 in ALDH2 and alcohol drinker status (odd ratio (OR)=0.40, P=2.28 x 10-72) in East Asians, and also an effect on drinks/week (beta=-0.17, P=5.42 x 10-4) in the same group. We also observed a genome-wide significant association in non-Hispanic whites between the previously reported SNP rs1229984 in ADH1B and both alcohol consumption phenotypes (OR=0.79, P=2.47 x 10-20 for drinker status and beta=-0.19, P=1.91 x 10-35 for drinks/week), which replicated in Hispanic/Latinos (OR=0.72, P=4.35 x 10-7 and beta=-0.21, P=2.58 x 10-6, respectively). Although prior studies reported effects of ADH1B and ALDH2 on lifetime measures, such as risk of alcohol dependence, our study adds further evidence of the effect of the same genes on a cross-sectional measure of average drinking. Our trans-ethnic meta-analysis confirmed recent findings implicating the KLB and GCKR loci in alcohol consumption, with strongest associations observed for rs7686419 (beta=-0.04, P=3.41 x 10-10 for drinks/week and OR=0.96, P=4.08 x 10-5 for drinker status), and rs4665985 (beta=0.04, P=2.26 x 10-8 for drinks/week and OR=1.04, P=5 x 10-4 for drinker status), respectively. Finally, we also obtained confirmatory results extending previous findings implicating AUTS2, SGOL1 and SERPINC1 genes in alcohol consumption traits in non-Hispanic whites.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 9 May 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.101

22 June 2017 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Controversy exists on the association between alcohol consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We carried out a meta-analysis to summarize available prospective data on alcohol consumption and HF.

METHODS: We searched PubMed for relevant studies published until January 1, 2017. Relative risk (RR) estimates from individual studies were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 13 prospective studies, with 13,738 HF cases and 355,804 participants, were included in the meta-analysis. Light alcohol drinking (0.1-7 drinks/week) was inversely associated with risk of HF (RR, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.90). There was no statistically significant association between moderate (7.1-14 drinks/week), high (14.1-28 drinks/week), or heavy (>28 drinks/week) alcohol consumption and HF risk. Former drinking was associated with an increased risk of HF compared with never or occasional drinking (RR, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.33).

CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis found that light alcohol drinking was associated with a lower risk of HF. Former drinking was associated with a higher risk of HF.

26 April 2017 In General Health

Epidemiology studies have been carried out to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of gallstone disease, but the results remain controversial. We carried out a meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the evidences from observational studies on alcohol consumption and the risk of gallstone disease. Eligible studies published in English were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases. The random-effect model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Restricted cubic splines were used to assess the dose-response relationship. Eight cohort studies and 10 case-control studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled RR of gallstone disease for the highest versus the lowest alcohol consumption was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.49-0.78). Statistically significant associations were also found in stratified analysis by study design (cohort studies: RR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.48-0.91 and case-control studies: RR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.45-0.73). With respect to sex, both men (RR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8) and women (RR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.53-0.77) showed statistically significant associations between alcohol consumption and the risk of gallstone disease. A linear dose-response relationship was found between alcohol consumption and gallstone disease risk and the risk of gallstone disease decreased by 12% (RR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.84-0.92; Pnonlinearity=0.079) for each 10 g/day increment in alcohol consumption. This meta-analysis suggests that alcohol consumption is associated with significantly decreased risk of gallstone disease.

26 April 2017 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: It is unknown if wine, beer and spirit intake lead to a similar association with diabetes. We studied the association between alcoholic beverage preference and type 2 diabetes incidence in persons who reported to consume alcohol.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: Ten European cohort studies from the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States were included, comprising participant data of 62 458 adults who reported alcohol consumption at baseline. Diabetes incidence was based on documented and/or self-reported diagnosis during follow-up. Preference was defined when 70% of total alcohol consumed was either beer, wine or spirits. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were computed using Cox proportional hazard regression. Single-cohort HRs were pooled by random-effects meta-analysis.

RESULTS: Beer, wine or spirit preference was not related to diabetes risk compared with having no preference. The pooled HRs were HR 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93, 1.20) for beer, HR 0.99 (95% CI 0.88, 1.11) for wine, and HR 1.19 (95% CI 0.97, 1.46) for spirit preference. Absolute wine intake, adjusted for total alcohol, was associated with a lower diabetes risk: pooled HR per 6 g/day was 0.96 (95% CI 0.93, 0.99). A spirit preference was related to a higher diabetes risk in those with a higher body mass index, in men and women separately, but not after excluding persons with prevalent diseases.

CONCLUSIONS: This large individual-level meta-analysis among persons who reported alcohol consumption revealed that the preference for beer, wine, and spirits was similarly associated with diabetes incidence compared with having no preference.

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 22 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.4

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