06 May 2014 In Cancer

Background:Many epidemiological studies have investigated the association between folate intake, circulating folate level and risk of breast cancer; however, the findings were inconsistent between the studies.

Methods: We searched the PubMed and MEDLINE databases updated to January, 2014 and performed the systematic review and meta-analysis of the published epidemiological studies to assess the associations between folate intake level, circulating folate level and the overall risk of breast cancer.

Results:In all, 16 eligible prospective studies with a total of 744 068 participants and 26 205 breast cancer patients and 26 case-control studies with a total of 16 826 cases and 21 820 controls that have evaluated the association between folate intake and breast cancer risk were identified. Pooled analysis of the prospective studies and case-control studies suggested a potential nonlinearity relationship for dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk.

Prospective studies indicated a U-shaped relationship for the dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk. Women with daily dietary folate intake between 153 and 400 mug showed a significant reduced breast cancer risk compared with those 400 mug. The case-control studies also suggested a significantly negative correlation between the dietary folate intake level and the breast cancer risk. Increased dietary folate intake reduced breast cancer risk for women with higher alcohol intake level, but not for those with lower alcohol intake. No significant association between circulating folate level and breast cancer risk was found when the results of 8 identified studies with 5924 participants were pooled.

Conclusions:Our studies suggested that folate may have preventive effects against breast cancer risk, especially for those with higher alcohol consumption level; however, the dose and timing are critical and more studies are warranted to further elucidate the questions.

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 25 March 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.155 www.bjcancer.com




06 May 2014 In Cancer




OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologic studies suggest that the effect on lung cancer risk may be different for beer, wine, and liquor. We conducted dose-specific meta-analyses and dose-response meta-regression to summarize findings from the current literature on the association between consumption of beer, wine, or liquor and lung cancer risk.

RESULTS: Average beer consumption of one drink or greater per day was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer [relative risk (RR), 1.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.06-1.41]. This association was observed in both men and women, although it was only significant in men. A J-shaped dose-response curve was suggested for beer intake. An inverse association was observed for both average wine consumption of less than one drink per day (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.00) and one drink or greater per day (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60-1.02) in the drinking range incurred in the source studies. Average liquor consumption of one drink or greater per day was found to be associated with increased risk in men (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62). No association was observed for liquor drinking in women. The presence of heterogeneity between studies was detected. Study design, country, gender, adjustment factors, and lung cancer histologic type were not significant predictors of the heterogeneity.

CONCLUSIONS: The results from this meta-analysis suggest that high consumption of beer and liquors may be associated with increased lung cancer risk, whereas modest wine consumption may be inversely associated with risk. More research with improved control of confounding is needed to confirm these findings and to establish the dose-response relationship, particularly risk at high consumption levels.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns, which represent whole-diet and possible food and nutrient interactions, have been linked to the risk of various cancers. However, the associations of these dietary patterns with breast cancer remain unclear.

OBJECTIVE: We critically appraised the literature and conducted meta-analyses to pool the results of studies to clarify the relation between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk.

DESIGN: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for relevant articles that identified common dietary patterns published up to November 2009. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) comparing highest and lowest categories of dietary pattern scores and multivariable-adjusted ORs for a 20th-percentile increase in dietary pattern scores were combined by using random-effects meta-analyses.

RESULTS: Case-control and cohort studies were retrieved that identified prudent/healthy (n = 18), Western/unhealthy (n = 17), and drinker (n = 4) dietary patterns. There was evidence of a decrease in the risk of breast cancer in the highest compared with the lowest categories of prudent/healthy dietary patterns (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.99; P = 0.02) in all studies and in pooled cohort studies alone. An increase in the risk of breast cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of a drinker dietary pattern (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.41; P = 0.01). There was no evidence of a difference in the risk of breast cancer between the highest and the lowest categories of Western/unhealthy dietary patterns (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.22; P = 0.12).

CONCLUSION: The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that some dietary patterns may be associated with breast cancer risk.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: The role of alcohol consumption in relation with renal cell carcinoma is still unclear; a few studies have reported a beneficial effect of moderate levels of alcohol consumption, whereas it remains still under debate whether there is a dose-response association.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty observational studies (4 cohort, 1 pooled and 15 case-control) reporting results on at least three levels of alcohol consumption were selected through a combined search with PubMed and EMBASE of articles published before November 2010. Overall relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects models, and both second-order fractional polynomials and random effect meta-regression models were implemented for the study of dose-risk relation.

RESULTS: The estimated RRs were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80-0.92) for any alcohol drinking, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.83-0.97) for light drinking (0.01-12.49 g/day), 0.79 (95% CI: 0.71-0.88) for moderate drinking (12.5-49.9 g/day) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.58-1.39) for heavy drinking (>/=50 g/day), respectively.

CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis supports the hypothesis of a negative effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the risk of renal cell cancer.




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