24 February 2016 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Previous cohort studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, whether these associations differ according to the characteristics of patients with T2D remains controversial.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore and summarize the evidence on the strength of the association between alcohol consumption and the subsequent risk of T2D by using a dose-response meta-analytic approach.

DESIGN: We identified potential studies by searching the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases up to 24 March 2015. Prospective observational studies that evaluated the relation between alcohol consumption and the risk of T2D and reported its effect estimates with 95% CIs were included.

RESULTS: Analyses were based on 706,716 individuals (275,711 men and 431,005 women) from 26 studies with 31,621 T2D cases. We detected a nonlinear relation between alcohol consumption and the risk of T2D, which was identified in all cohorts (P-trend < 0.001, P-nonlinearity < 0.001), in men (P-trend < 0.001, P-nonlinearity < 0.001), and in women (P-trend < 0.001, P-nonlinearity < 0.001). Compared with the minimal category of alcohol consumption, light (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.95; P = 0.005) and moderate (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.82; P < 0.001) alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of T2D. However, heavy alcohol consumption had little or no effect on subsequent T2D risk. Furthermore, the summary RR ratio (RRR; male to female) of the comparison between moderate alcohol consumption and the minimal alcohol categories for T2D was significantly higher, and the pooled RRR (current smoker to never smoker) of light alcohol consumption was significantly reduced.

CONCLUSIONS: Light and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of T2D, whereas heavy alcohol consumption was not related to the risk of T2D.

16 October 2015 In Cancer

Alcohol consumption is a major cause of disease and death. In a previous study, we reported that in 2002, 3.6% of all cases of cancer and a similar proportion of cancer deaths were attributable to the consumption of alcohol. We aimed to update these figures to 2012 using global estimates of cancer cases and cancer deaths, data on the prevalence of drinkers from the World Health Organization (WHO) global survey on alcohol and health, and relative risks for alcohol-related neoplasms from a recent meta-analysis. Over the 10-year period considered, the total number of alcohol-attributable cancer cases increased to approximately 770,000 worldwide (5.5% of the total number of cancer cases) - 540,000 men (7.2%) and 230,000 women (3.5%). Corresponding figures for cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption increased to approximately 480,000 (5.8% of the total number of cancer deaths) in both sexes combined - 360,000 (7.8%) men and 115,000 (3.3%) women. These proportions were particularly high in the WHO Western Pacific region, the WHO European Region and the WHO South-East Asia region. A high burden of cancer mortality and morbidity is attributable to alcohol, and public health measures should be adopted in order to limit excessive alcohol consumption.

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16 October 2015 In Cancer

AIMS: Cancers of female breast, upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus) and colorectum are causally related to alcohol consumption. Although alcohol consumption is likely to vary during life, the few studies that have explicitly measured lifetime consumption or intake over time have not been summarised. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis.

METHODS: Studies were identified by searching the Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) and Scopus databases through January 2015 using broad search criteria. Studies reporting relative risks (RR) for quantitatively defined categories of alcohol consumption over time for breast, UADT or colorectal cancer were eligible. A two-stage random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate a dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and each cancer site. RRs were also calculated for the highest relative to the lowest intake category.

RESULTS: Sixteen articles for breast, 16 for UADT and 7 for colorectal cancer met the eligibility criteria. We observed a weak non-linear dose-response relationship for breast cancer and positive linear dose-response relationships for UADT and colorectal cancer. The pooled RRs were 1.28 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.07, 1.52) for breast, 2.83 (95% CI: 1.73, 4.62) for UADT, 4.84 (95% CI: 2.51, 9.32) for oral cavity and pharynx, 2.25 (95% CI: 1.49, 3.42) for larynx, 6.71 (95% CI: 4.21, 10.70) for oesophageal and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.27, 1.74) for colorectal cancer.

CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm dose-dependent associations between long-term alcohol intake and breast, UADT and colorectal cancer.

16 September 2015 In Diabetes

OBJECTIVES: Habitual alcohol drinking has been shown to reduce the risk for diabetes by recent meta-analysis studies. However, it remains to be clarified whether the relationship between alcohol and diabetes is influenced by adiposity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether glycemic status is influenced by alcohol drinking in women.

METHODS: The subjects were 18 352 Japanese women, 35 to 60 years of age, who underwent health check-up examinations. The subjects were divided into 4 groups: nondrinkers, occasional drinkers, regular light drinkers (/=22 g ethanol/day). The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels was investigated by using analysis of covariance and logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and histories of smoking and regular exercise.

RESULTS: A1C levels were significantly lower in occasional, regular light and regular heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and was significantly lower in regular light and heavy drinkers than in occasional drinkers. These inverse associations were not altered by adiposity status as evaluated by body mass index and waist-to-height ratios. Odds ratios versus nondrinkers for hyperglycemia were significantly lower (p<0.01) than the reference level of 1.00 in occasional drinkers (0.82 [95% confidence interval 0.73 to 0.92]); regular light drinkers (0.61 [95% CI: 0.44 to 0.85]) and regular heavy drinkers (0.66 [95% CI: 0.50 to 0.88]).

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that glycemic status is inversely associated with alcohol drinking independent of adiposity status in Japanese women. This may be related to the known lower risk for cardiovascular disease in female drinkers.

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