16 October 2015 In Diabetes

Background: Recommendations for moderate alcohol consumption remain controversial, particularly in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Long-term randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) are lacking. Objective: To assess cardiometabolic effects of initiating moderate alcohol intake in persons with T2DM and whether the type of wine matters. Design: 2-year RCT (CASCADE [CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol] trial). (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00784433).

Setting: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev-Soroka Medical Center and Nuclear Research Center Negev, Israel. Patients: Alcohol-abstaining adults with well-controlled T2DM. Intervention: Patients were randomly assigned to 150 mL of mineral water, white wine, or red wine with dinner for 2 years. Wines and mineral water were provided. All groups followed a Mediterranean diet without caloric restriction.

Measurements: Primary outcomes were lipid and glycemic control profiles. Genetic measurements were done, and patients were followed for blood pressure, liver biomarkers, medication use, symptoms, and quality of life.

Results: Of the 224 patients who were randomly assigned, 94% had follow-up data at 1 year and 87% at 2 years. In addition to the changes in the water group (Mediterranean diet only), red wine significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level by 0.05 mmol/L (2.0 mg/dL) (95% CI, 0.04 to 0.06 mmol/L [1.6 to 2.2 mg/dL]; P < 0.001) and apolipoprotein(a)1 level by 0.03 g/L (CI, 0.01 to 0.06 g/L; P = 0.05) and decreased the total cholesterol-HDL-C ratio by 0.27 (CI, -0.52 to -0.01; P = 0.039). Only slow ethanol metabolizers (alcohol dehydrogenase alleles [ADH1B*1] carriers) significantly benefited from the effect of both wines on glycemic control (fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and hemoglobin A1c) compared with fast ethanol metabolizers (persons homozygous for ADH1B*2). Across the 3 groups, no material differences were identified in blood pressure, adiposity, liver function, drug therapy, symptoms, or quality of life, except that sleep quality improved in both wine groups compared with the water group (P = 0.040). Overall, compared with the changes in the water group, red wine further reduced the number of components of the metabolic syndrome by 0.34 (CI, -0.68 to -0.001; P = 0.049).

Limitation: Participants were not blinded to treatment allocation. Conclusion: This long-term RCT suggests that initiating moderate wine intake, especially red wine, among well-controlled diabetics as part of a healthy diet is apparently safe and modestly decreases cardiometabolic risk. The genetic interactions suggest that ethanol plays an important role in glucose metabolism, and red wine's effects also involve nonalcoholic constituents. Primary Funding Source: European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes.

16 October 2015 In Diabetes

AIMS: Observational studies report inconsistent associations between moderate alcohol intake and blood pressure (BP). In a sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial, we assessed the effect of initiating moderate red wine consumption on 24-h BP recordings and the effect of a common genetic variant of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) among patients with type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: Fifty-four type 2 diabetes, alcohol abstainers were randomized to consume 150ml/dinner dry red wine or mineral water. Both groups were guided to adhere to a Mediterranean diet, without caloric restriction. We measured 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) at baseline and after 6 months.

RESULTS: Participants (age = 57 years; 85% men; mean 24-h BP = 129/77mm Hg) had 92% 6-month retention. After 6 months of intervention, the average 24-h BP did not differ between the wine and water groups. A transient decrease in BP was observed in the red wine group at midnight (3-4 hours after wine intake: systolic BP: red wine = -10.6mm Hg vs. mineral water = +2.3mm Hg; P = 0.031) and the following morning at 7-9 am (red wine: -6.2mm Hg vs. mineral water: +5.6mm Hg; P = 0.014). In a second post hoc sub-analysis among the red wine consumers, individuals who were homozygous for the gene encoding ADH1B*2 variant (Arg48His; rs1229984, TT, fast ethanol metabolizers), exhibited a reduction in mean 24-h systolic BP (-8.0mm Hg vs. +3.7mm Hg; P = 0.002) and pulse pressure (-3.8mm Hg vs. +1.2mm Hg; P = 0.032) compared to heterozygotes and those homozygous for the ADH1B*1 variant (CC, slow metabolizers).

CONCLUSIONS: Initiating moderate red wine consumption at dinner among type 2 diabetes patients does not have a discernable effect on mean 24-h BP. Yet, a modest temporal BP reduction could be documented, and a more pronounced BP-lowering effect is suggested among fast ethanol metabolizers.

CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00784433

23 July 2015 In Cancer
BACKGROUND: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC); previous studies have shown a linear dose-dependent association between alcohol intake and CRC. However, some studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may have a protective effect, similar to that seen in cardiovascular disease. Other factors may interact with alcohol and contribute additional risk for CRC. We aimed to determine the association between moderate alcohol consumption, limited to 30 g of alcohol per day, by beverage type on CRC risk and to assess the effects of other factors that interact with alcohol to influence CRC risk. METHODS: The PubMed database was used to find articles published between 2008 and 2014 related to alcohol and CRC. Twenty-one relevant articles were evaluated and summarized, including 11 articles reporting on CRC risk associated with moderate intake and 10 articles focusing on genetic interactions associated with alcohol and CRC risk. RESULTS: The association between alcohol and increased risk for CRC was found when intakes exceeded 30 g/d alcohol. Nonsignificant results were consistently reported for intakes
16 June 2015 In Phenolic compounds

BACKGROUND: Mediterranean-style diet has been considered for its important beneficial effects on the progression of CV disease. Wine is an important component of the Mediterranean diet, and moderate wine drinkers have lower mortality rates than nondrinkers and heavy drinkers in epidemiologic studies. The beneficial effects of red wine are thought to be dependent on the polyphenol compounds such as resveratrol that exhibit potent antioxidant activity. However, white wine, although lacking polyphenols, contains simple phenols, such as tyrosol (Tyr) and hydroxytyrosol (OH-Tyr), characteristic also of extra-virgin olive oil, which may share similar antioxidant and inflammatory properties.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The effect of white wine and extra-virgin olive oil on inflammatory markers was evaluated in 10 healthy volunteers and in 10 patients with CKD (chronic kidney disease) K-DOQI stage III-IV in a prospective, single blind, randomized, cross-over trial. After two weeks of wash-out from alcoholic beverages, subjects were randomized to a cross-over design A-B or B-A of a 2-week treatment with white wine (4 ml/kg body weight, 0.48 g/kg of alcohol 12%, corresponding to 2-3 glasses/daily) and extra-virgin olive oil (treatment A) or extra-virgin olive oil alone (treatment B). The two study periods were separated by a two-week wash-out period. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, plasma levels of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration were determined. Urinary levels of Tyr, OH-Tyr, and their metabolites were measured at the same time.

RESULTS: During combined consumption of white wine and extra-virgin olive oil (treatment A), plasma levels of CRP and IL-6 decreased from 4.1 +/- 1.8 to 2.4 +/- 1.9 mg/l (p < 0.05) and from 5.3 +/- 3.2 to 3.4 +/- 2.3 mg/l (p < 0.05) in CKD patients. CRP decreased from 2.6 +/- 1.2 to 1.9 +/- 0.9 mg/l (p < 0.05), and IL-6 decreased from 2.2 +/- 1.8 to 1.7 +/- 1.3 mg/l (p = ns) in healthy volunteers. No significant variation versus baseline was observed during treatment B. A significant increase in urinary Tyr and OH-Tyr was observed during treatment A (white wine and extra-virgin olive oil).

CONCLUSIONS: Plasma markers of chronic inflammation were significantly reduced in CKD patients during the combined consumption of white wine and olive oil, suggesting a possible anti-inflammatory effect of this nutritional intervention.

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