06 May 2014 In General Health




OBJECTIVE: Assessment of relation between metabolic syndrome (MS) and Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. ATP III definition of MS was used. Adherence to MD was assessed with a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Intakes of cereal, fruit, legumes, vegetables, fish, nuts, monounsaturated to saturated ratio, alcohol from red wine, whole-fat dairy products and red meat were considered. SETTING: Representative sample of population from the Canary Islands (Spain) participating in the Canarian Nutrition Survey (ENCA). SUBJECTS: 578 adults>18 years. RESULTS: Of the subjects, 24.4% presented MS. Once adjusted, MD adherence was not related to MS prevalence, but subjects in the third tertile of adherence presented 70% lower prevalence of the blood pressure criteria and 2.5 times more prevalence of the glycaemia criteria with respect to the first tertile. Red meat intake was associated with higher prevalence of blood pressure criteria. Moderate alcohol intake from red wine was associated with lower prevalence of these criteria in women and lower prevalence of HDL cholesterol criteria in men. Fruit intake showed a protective effect on triglyceride criteria, whereas vegetable intake was associated with higher prevalence of this criterion. Cereals' intake showed a protective effect over insulin resistance measured by high insulinaemia level. Fruit intake showed a significative protective effect over high Homeostasis Model Assessment index. Whole-fat dairy products showed a significant protective effect on the glycaemia criteria. High monounsaturated to saturated fatty acid intake showed a protective effect on insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Some components of the MD showed a protective effect on the MS and its components.




Objective: To examine the association between alcohol consumption patterns and adherence to major food consumption guidelines in adults in Spain. Methods: Telephone survey of 12,037 persons, representative of the population age 18 to 64 years in the region of Madrid, conducted from 2000 to 2005. The threshold between average moderate and excessive drinking was 40 g alcohol/d in men and 24 g/d in women. Binge drinking was defined as intake of >/=80 g alcohol in men and >/=60 g in women during 1 drinking session in the last 30 days. Food consumption was measured with a 24-hour recall. Statistical analyses were performed using logistic regression and adjusted for the main confounders. Results: In total, 4.3% of study participants were excessive drinkers and 10.3% binge drinkers; 6.5% preferred spirits and 24.2% drank with meals. In comparison with never drinking, average moderate drinking with binge drinking was associated with excessive meat consumption (>1 serving/d). Excessive alcohol consumption without binge drinking was associated with insufficient intake of milk products (2 servings/d). Excessive drinkers with binge drinking more often did not meet the guidelines on consumption of fruit and vegetables (




Background/Objectives: The habitual consumption of a specific type of alcoholic beverage may be related to the overall dietary pattern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary intake in The Netherlands.

Subjects/Methods: A total of 2100 men and women from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. A general questionnaire assessed alcoholic beverage preference and two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls assessed overall diet. Mean nutrient and food group intakes, and adherence to the 2006 Dutch dietary guidelines across categories of alcoholic beverage preference were compared and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking, physical activity, energy intake and frequency and absolute alcohol consumption.

Results: Largest differences in dietary habits were detected between persons who preferred wine and those who preferred beer. Persons with a beer preference had a higher absolute intake of meat, soft drinks, margarine and snacks. In contrast, persons with a wine preference had a higher absolute consumption of healthy foods. However, after multiple adjustments, wine consumers still consumed less energy and more vegetables and fruit juices compared with beer consumers. Adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines did not differ between preference categories after multiple adjustments.

Conclusions: In this cross-sectional analysis in a representative sample of the Dutch population, a beer preference was associated with less healthy dietary behaviour, especially compared with wine preference. However, these differences were largely explained by other socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. These results suggest that alcoholic beverage preference may not be independently related to diet.




06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Minimal data are available regarding the cumulative effects of healthy lifestyle behaviours on cardiometabolic risk. The objective of the present study was to examine a combination of healthy lifestyle behaviours associated with cardiometabolic risk reduction. The analysis was based on a cross-sectional study of 1454 participants from the population-based Lipid Research Clinic's Princeton Follow-up Study. The healthy lifestyle factors included fruit and vegetable intake >/= 5 servings/d, meat intake /= 4 h/week. The combination of healthy lifestyle behaviours was strongly and negatively associated with the presence of cardiometabolic risk, as well as with a composite cardiometabolic risk score after adjustment for race, age, generation and sex. With each additional healthy lifestyle factor, cardiometabolic risk decreased by 31 % (OR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.61, 0.78). A higher healthy lifestyle score was associated with a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk (P for trend < 0.001). Compared with individuals having 0-1 healthy lifestyle behaviours, those with 5 or 6 healthy lifestyle behaviours had a 70 % lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk (OR 0.30; 95 % CI 0.13, 0.67). Healthy lifestyle behaviours including sufficient fruit and vegetable intake, less meat intake, less TV viewing time, abstinence from smoking, modest alcohol intake and regular exercise are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk.

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