06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relative importance of the individual components of the Mediterranean diet in generating the inverse association of increased adherence to this diet and overall mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Greek segment of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). PARTICIPANTS: 23 349 men and women, not previously diagnosed with cancer, coronary heart disease, or diabetes, with documented survival status until June 2008 and complete information on nutritional variables and important covariates at enrolment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 8.5 years, 652 deaths from any cause had occurred among 12 694 participants with Mediterranean diet scores 0-4 and 423 among 10 655 participants with scores of 5 or more. Controlling for potential confounders, higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with a statistically significant reduction in total mortality (adjusted mortality ratio per two unit increase in score 0.864, 95% confidence interval 0.802 to 0.932). The contributions of the individual components of the Mediterranean diet to this association were moderate ethanol consumption 23.5%, low consumption of meat and meat products 16.6%, high vegetable consumption 16.2%, high fruit and nut consumption 11.2%, high monounsaturated to saturated lipid ratio 10.6%, and high legume consumption 9.7%. The contributions of high cereal consumption and low dairy consumption were minimal, whereas high fish and seafood consumption was associated with a non-significant increase in mortality ratio. CONCLUSION: The dominant components of the Mediterranean diet score as a predictor of lower mortality are moderate consumption of ethanol, low consumption of meat and meat products, and high consumption of vegetables, fruits and nuts, olive oil, and legumes. Minimal contributions were found for cereals and dairy products, possibly because they are heterogeneous categories of foods with differential health effects, and for fish and seafood, the intake of which is low in this Population.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION: The promotion of Mediterranean Diets has generated some doubts, because of the concern that its high fat content might lead to the development of obesity. METHODS: Longitudinal analysis of 6319 participants in the SUN cohort study. We used a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (136 items). Baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) was assessed using a score (score_1) including vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, pulses, fish, olive oil and moderate consumption of red wine (positively weighted), whereas meat and dairy products were negatively weighted. We assessed the association between the overall baseline adherence to the MDP (score_1) and subsequent weight change after 28 months of follow-up. We also built another score (score_2) to assess changes in diet during follow-up and appraised the association between the joint exposure to both scores and weight change during follow-up. RESULTS: Participants in the first quartile of score_1 (lowest baseline adherence to MDP) showed a higher weight gain (+0.73 kg) than those in the top quartile (+0.45 kg). The results indicated an inverse dose-response relationship (P for trend = 0.016). A similar inverse association was apparent when we used change in adherence to the MDP (score_2). However, both inverse associations did not remain statistically significant after adjusting for relevant confounders. Consumption of dairy products was inversely associated with weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Although participants increased their average weight during the follow-up period, weight increments were smaller among those with a higher adherence to an 'a priori' defined MDP. Results did not remain statistically significant after multivariate adjustment.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

Given the lack of consistent evidence of the relationship between Mediterranean dietary patterns and body fat, we assessed the cross-sectional association between adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, BMI, and waist circumference (WC). A total of 497,308 individuals (70.7% women) aged 25-70 y from 10 European countries participated in this study. Diet was assessed at baseline using detailed validated country-specific questionnaires, and anthropometrical measurements were collected using standardized procedures. The association between the degree of adherence to the modified-Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) (including high consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts, cereals, fish and seafood, and unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio; moderate alcohol intake; and low consumption of meat and meat products and dairy products) and BMI (kg.m(-2)) or WC (cm) was modeled through mixed-effects linear regression, controlling for potential confounders. Overall, the mMDS was not significantly associated with BMI. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with lower WC, for a given BMI, in both men (-0.09; 95% CI -0.14 to -0.04) and women (-0.06; 95% CI -0.10 to -0.01). The association was stronger in men (-0.20; 95% CI -0.23 to -0.17) and women (-0.17; 95% CI -0.21 to -0.13) from Northern European countries. Despite the observed heterogeneity among regions, results of this study suggest that adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, high in foods of vegetable origin and unsaturated fatty acids, is associated with lower abdominal adiposity measured by WC in European men and women.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

BACKGROUND: The Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEAD) is the traditional diet in northern Portugal and Galicia, a region in northwest Spain. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between adherence to the SEAD and the occurrence of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN: This was a population-based case-control study in Porto, Portugal. Cases were patients aged > or =18 y who were hospitalized with an incident AMI (n = 820), and controls were individuals without AMI selected at random from the resident population of the participating hospitals' catchment area (n = 2196). A validated food-frequency questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews to assess dietary intake in the previous year. We developed an SEAD adherence index with 9 key components: fresh fish excluding cod, cod, red meat and pork products, dairy products, legumes and vegetables, vegetable soup, potatoes, whole-grain bread, and wine. A score of 1 or 0 was assigned to each food consumed and reflected consumption that was higher or lower, respectively, than the sex-specific median in controls. RESULTS: After adjustment for the main confounders, a 1-point increment in the SEAD score was associated with a 10% reduced odds of AMI [odds ratio (OR): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.96]. In comparison with individuals in the lower quartile of the SEAD index (lowest adherence), those in the upper quartile had a 33% lower likelihood of experiencing an AMI (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.88; P for trend = 0.003). An SEAD index calculated by reverse scoring for red meat and pork products and potatoes led to an even stronger inverse association between the SEAD and AMI (OR for the upper compared with the lower quartile of SEAD index: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.52; P for trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the SEAD was associated with lower odds of nonfatal AMI. However, some but not all food components of the SEAD may contribute to the very low coronary mortality in northern Portugal and Galicia.

 

 

 

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