01 February 2017 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

This study aims (1) to describe the context of drinking among adolescents with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) by gender, (2) to explore temporal changes in the context of drinking and (3) to analyse the association between the context of drinking and blood alcohol concentration (BAC). A retrospective chart review of 12- to 17-year-old inpatients with AAI (n = 1441) of the years 2000 to 2006 has been conducted in five participating hospitals in Germany. Gender differences in the context of drinking were tested with t test and chi2 test. Differences over time were analysed using logistic regressions. Multivariate linear regression was used to predict BAC. Girls and boys differed in admission time, drinking situation, drinking occasion and admission context. No temporal changes in drinking situation and in admission to hospital from public locations or places were found. Higher BAC coincided with male gender and age. Moreover, BAC was higher among patients admitted to hospital from public places and lower among patients who drank for coping. CONCLUSION: The results suggest gender differences in the context of drinking. The context of drinking needs to be considered in the development and implementation of target group-specific prevention and intervention measures. What is known: * The context of drinking, e.g. when, where, why and with whom is associated with episodic heavy drinking among adolescents. What is new: * Male and female inpatients with acute alcohol intoxication differ with regards to the context of drinking, i.e. in admission time, drinking situation, drinking occasion and admission context. * Being admitted to hospital from public places is associated with higher blood alcohol concentration.

01 February 2017 In Cardiovascular System

INTRODUCTION: The cardio-protective effect of alcohol has been the subject of a long-standing scientific controversy. Emerging evidence remains equivocal, as the validity of the dose-dependent J-shape association is tainted by conceptual, theoretical and methodological problems. A major impediment for a resolution on the matter is the lack of a life-long developmental approach to pinpoint alcohol's specific impact on the risk for cardio-vascular events (CVE).

OBJECTIVE: Using retrospective and prospective individual-level data of alcohol consumption (AC) we applied a model-based clustering technique to uncover life-course trajectories of AC and explored their links to CVE.

METHODS: Data stemmed from a random sub-cohort of a large-scale, longitudinal study conducted in the Netherlands (N=2288). Group Based Trajectory Model (GBTM) was applied to extract distinct progressions of AC over time. Stratified by sex, the association between the developmental trajectories and CVE was examined with multiple logistic regression models, with adjustment for traditional risk factors. RESULTS: GBTM analysis laid bare the heterogeneity of AC dynamics over the life-course, reiterating sex differences in drinking habits and CVE risk. AC temporal behaviors during adolescence and adulthood were diverse, but showed relative stability in in middle-age and elderly years. For males, adjusted odds for CVE differed among the uncovered developmental classes.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings elicited supportive evidence for a J-shape, but with a new twist. Besides moderation the results indicate that onset, timing, duration and stability of AC over the life-course are major aspects to be accounted for when attempting to elucidate alcohol's cardio-vascular role.

15 December 2016 In General Health

BACKGROUND: To estimate the benchmark dose (BMD) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) of alcohol consumption as the reference level for the development of hyperuricemia based on the dose-response relationship.

METHODS: An 8-year prospective cohort study was conducted in 8097 male workers at a Japanese steel company who received annual health check-ups between 2002 and 2009. The endpoints for development of hyperuricemia were defined as a uric acid >/=7 mg/dL or taking any anti-hyperuricemic medication. The dose-response relationship of alcohol consumption was investigated using multivariate-pooled logistic regression analyses adjusted for other potential covariates. We estimated the BMD and BMDL of alcohol consumption for the development of hyperuricemia, using the parameters obtained by pooled logistic regression with a benchmark response (BMR) of 5% or 10%.

RESULTS: Mean observed years per person was 3.86 years. The incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 61.1. The odds ratio calculated for the development of hyperuricemia was 1.29 [95% confidence interval, (1.22-1.36)] with an increase in alcohol consumption per 1 gou/day (1 gou/day = alcohol 22 g/day). The estimated BMDL/BMD with a BMR of 5% was 2.5/2.8 gou/day (54.5/61.8 g/day) and with a BMR of 10% was 4.0/4.6 gou/day (88.9/100.9 g/day).

CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that alcohol consumption of 2.5 gou/day (=ethanol 55 g/day) caused a distinct increase in the risk of hyperuricemia. Valuable information for preventing alcohol-induced hyperuricemia was obtained by a long-term follow-up study of a large cohort.

15 December 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

PURPOSE: We seek answers to three questions about adolescent risk of starting to drink alcoholic beverages: (1) in new United States (US) data, can we reproduce a recently discovered female excess risk? (2) has a female excess risk emerged in European countries? and (3) might the size of country-level female-male differences (FMD) be influenced by macro-level gender equality and development processes?

METHODS: Estimates are from US and European surveys of adolescents, 2010-2014. For US estimates, newly incident drinking refers to consuming the first full drink during the 12-month interval just prior to assessment. For all countries, lifetime cumulative incidence of drinking refers to any drinking before assessment of the sampled 15-16 years.

RESULTS: Cumulative meta-analysis summary estimates from the US show a highly reproducible female excess in newly incident drinking among 12-17 years (final estimated female-male difference in risk, FMD = 2.1%; 95% confidence interval = 1.5%, 2.7%). Several European countries show female excess risk, estimated as lifetime cumulative incidence of drinking onsets before age 17 years. At the country level, the observed magnitude of FMD in risk is positively associated with the Gender Development Index (especially facets related to education and life expectancy of females relative to males), and with residence in a higher income European country.

CONCLUSIONS: New FMD estimates support reproducibility of a female excess risk in the US. In Europe, evidence of a female excess is modest. Educational attainment, life expectancies, and income merit attention in future FMD research on suspected macro-level processes that influence drinking onsets.

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