06 May 2014 In Cancer




Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality and is considered to be largely attributable to inappropriate lifestyle and behavior patterns. The purpose of this review was to undertake a comparison of the strength of the associations between known and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer by conducting 10 independent meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies. Studies published between 1966 and January 2008 were identified through EMBASE and MEDLINE, using a combined text word and MESH heading search strategy. Studies were eligible if they reported estimates of the relative risk for colorectal cancer with any of the following: alcohol, smoking, diabetes, physical activity, meat, fish, poultry, fruits and vegetables. Studies were excluded if the estimates were not adjusted at least for age. Overall, data from 103 cohort studies were included. The risk of colorectal cancer was significantly associated with alcohol: individuals consuming the most alcohol had 60% greater risk of colorectal cancer compared with non- or light drinkers (relative risk 1.56, 95% CI 1.42-1.70). Smoking, diabetes, obesity and high meat intakes were each associated with a significant 20% increased risk of colorectal cancer (compared with individuals in the lowest categories for each) with little evidence of between-study heterogeneity or publication bias. Physical activity was protective against colorectal cancer. Public-health strategies that promote modest alcohol consumption, smoking cessation, weight loss, increased physical activity and moderate consumption of red and processed meat are likely to have significant benefits at the population level for reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




Using a mailed questionnaire, we investigated the risk of renal cell cancer in relation to different types of alcoholic beverages, and to total ethanol in a large population-based case-control study among Swedish adults, including 855 cases and 1204 controls. Compared to non-drinkers, a total ethanol intake of >620 g month(-1) was significantly related to a decreased risk of renal cell cancer (odds ratio (OR) 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9; P-value for trend=0.03). The risk decreased 30-40% with drinking more than two glasses per week of red wine (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9), white wine (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.0), or strong beer (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-1.0); there was a clear linear trend of decreasing risk with increasing consumption of these beverages (P-values for trends <0.05).




06 May 2014 In Cancer




We investigated the effect of alcoholic beverage consumption on the risk of lung cancer using the California Men's Health Study.

METHODS: The California Men's Health Study is a multiethnic cohort of 84,170 men ages 45 to 69 years who are members of the Kaiser Permanente California health plans. Demographics and detailed lifestyle characteristics were collected from surveys mailed between 2000 and 2003. Incident lung cancer cases were identified by health plan cancer registries through December 2006 (n=210). Multivariable Cox's regression was used to examine the effects of beer, red wine, white wine (including rose), and liquor consumption on risk of lung cancer adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, body mass index, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema, and smoking history.

RESULTS: There was a significant linear decrease in risk of lung cancer associated with consumption of red wine among ever-smokers: hazard ratio (HR), 0.98; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.96-1.00 for increase of 1 drink per month. This relationship was slightly stronger among heavy smokers (>or=20 pack-years): HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00. When alcoholic beverage consumption was examined by frequency of intake, consumption of >or=1 drink of red wine per day was associated with an approximately 60% reduced lung cancer risk in ever-smokers: HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.14-1.08. No clear associations with lung cancer were seen for intake of white wine, beer, or liquor.

CONCLUSION: Moderate red wine consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer risk after adjusting for confounders. Our results should not be extrapolated to heavy alcohol consumption.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between lifetime consumption of alcoholic beverages and cancer risk.

METHODS: Data were collected in a population-based case-control study, conducted in Montreal in the mid-1980s, designed to assess the associations between hundreds of non-occupational and occupational exposures and multiple cancer sites in men. We present results for 13 cancer sites: oesophagus (n = 78), stomach (n = 215), colon (n = 427), rectum (n = 239), liver (n = 28), pancreas (n = 83), lung (n = 700), melanoma (n = 107), prostate (n = 374), bladder (n = 425), kidney (n = 156), Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 42), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 190), in comparison to population controls (n = 507). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated for the associations between lifetime consumption of total alcoholic beverages, beer, wine, and/or spirits, altogether and separately, and each cancer site, while carefully adjusting for smoking and other covariates using polytomous logistic regression.

RESULTS: For several cancers (oesophagus, stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, lung, prostate) there was evidence of increased risk among alcohol consumers compared with abstainers and occasional drinkers. For most sites, it was beer and to a lesser extent spirits consumption that drove the excess risks.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that moderate and high alcohol intake levels over the lifetime might increase cancer risk at several sites.




Page 109 of 111


The authors have taken reasonable care in ensuring the accuracy of the information herein at the time of publication and are not responsible for any errors or omissions. Read more on our disclaimer and Privacy Policy.