03 May 2018 In Pregnant Women
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of low-to-moderate levels of maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy on pregnancy and longer-term offspring outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Psychinfo from inception to 11 July 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Prospective observational studies, negative control and quasiexperimental studies of pregnant women estimating effects of light drinking in pregnancy (=32 g/week) versus abstaining. Pregnancy outcomes such as birth weight and features of fetal alcohol syndrome were examined. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One reviewer extracted data and another checked extracted data. Random effects meta-analyses were performed where applicable, and a narrative summary of findings was carried out otherwise. MAIN RESULTS: 24 cohort and two quasiexperimental studies were included. With the exception of birth size and gestational age, there was insufficient data to meta-analyse or make robust conclusions. Odds of small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth were higher for babies whose mothers consumed up to 32 g/week versus none, but estimates for preterm birth were also compatible with no association: summary OR 1.08, 95% CI (1.02 to 1.14), I2 0%, (seven studies, all estimates were adjusted) OR 1.10, 95% CI (0.95 to 1.28), I2 60%, (nine studies, includes one unadjusted estimates), respectively. The earliest time points of exposure were used in the analysis. CONCLUSION: Evidence of the effects of drinking =32 g/week in pregnancy is sparse. As there was some evidence that even light prenatal alcohol consumption is associated with being SGA and preterm delivery, guidance could advise abstention as a precautionary principle but should explain the paucity of evidence
03 May 2018 In Phenolic compounds
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF
03 May 2018 In Liver Disease
To what extent could alcohol consumption affects female fertility is still unclear. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the dose-response relation between total and specific types of alcohol beverage (beer, wine, and spirits) consumption in female and the fecundability. Four electronic databases were searched. Observational studies (cohort and case-control) that provided female alcohol consumption and fecundity were eligible. Nineteen studies, involving 98657 women, were included in this study. Compared to non-drinkers, the combined estimate (with relative risk, RR) of alcohol consumers on fecundability was 0.87 (95% CI 0.78-0.95) for overall 19 studies. Compared to non-drinkers, the pooled estimates were 0.89 (95% CI 0.82-0.97) for light drinkers (=12.5 g/day of ethanol) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.61-0.94) for moderate-heavy drinkers (>12.5 g/day of ethanol). Moreover, compared to non-drinkers, the corresponding estimates on fecundability were 0.98 (95% CI 0.85-1.11), 1.02 (95% CI 0.99-1.05), and 0.92 (95% CI 0.83-1.01) for studies focused on wine, beer and spirits, respectively. Dose-response meta-analysis suggested a linear association between decreased fecundability and every 12.5 g/d increasing in alcohol consumption with a RR 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99). This first systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that female alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced fecundability
03 May 2018 In General Health
Aims: To review the effectiveness of responsible drinking messages (RDMs). Methods: We searched PsycINFO, MEDLINE and Google Scholar to June 2016 for studies evaluating the effectiveness of RDMs. Only eight studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Due to a small number of search results and broad inconsistency in methods and outcome measures, quantitative synthesis was not possible so a narrative summary of findings was conducted. Results: A review of findings from these articles suggested a disjointed approach in terms of the format and content of RDMs evaluated, as well as the dependent variables used to judge their effectiveness. An overall pattern emerged suggesting that RDMs may have beneficial effects across various outcome measures, including reducing prospective alcohol use. However, due to the inconsistent approach to both the development and evaluation of RDMs, it was not possible to draw any clear conclusions in terms of effectiveness, or indeed the potential size of any effects. Conclusions: A systematic approach to the development and evaluation of RDMs is recommended to ensure that a clearer evidence base is established in this area, particularly in light of the substantial public funds which are often spent on RDM campaigns. Short summary: A systematic review of studies evaluating the effectiveness of responsible drinking message campaigns reveals an inconsistent approach to message design and evaluation. Findings of the review suggest the need for a more consistent approach to aid in the development of a clearer evidence base in this area
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