06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the benefit of combining healthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors in the prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) in women.

METHODS: We used factor analysis to identify a low-risk behavior-based dietary pattern in 24 444 postmenopausal women from the population-based prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort who were free of diagnosed cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus at baseline (September 15, 1997). We also defined 3 low-risk lifestyle factors: nonsmoking, waist-hip ratio less than the 75th percentile (< 0.85), and being physically active (at least 40 minutes of daily walking or bicycling and 1 hour of weekly exercise).

RESULTS: During 6.2 years (151 434 person-years) of follow-up, we ascertained 308 cases of primary MI. Two major identified dietary patterns, "healthy" and "alcohol," were significantly associated with decreased risk of MI. The low-risk diet (high scores for the healthy dietary pattern) characterized by a high intake of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, fish, and legumes, in combination with moderate alcohol consumption (>/= 5 g of alcohol per day), along with the 3 low-risk lifestyle behaviors, was associated with 92% decreased risk (95% confidence interval, 72%-98%) compared with findings in women without any low-risk diet and lifestyle factors. This combination of healthy behaviors, present in 5%, may prevent 77% of MIs in the study population.

CONCLUSION: Most MIs in women may be preventable by consuming a healthy diet and moderate amounts of alcohol, being physically active, not smoking, and maintaining a healthy weight.

06 May 2014 In Cancer




Alcohol is an established carcinogen but not an established risk factor for prostate cancer, despite some recent prospective studies suggesting increased risk among heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of alcohol on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and prostate cancer risk. Two thousand four hundred PSA detected prostate cancer cases and 12,700 controls matched on age and general practice were identified through a case-control study nested in the PSA-testing phase of a large UK-based randomized controlled trial for prostate cancer treatment (ProtecT). Linear and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate ratios of geometric means (RGMs) of PSA and relative risk ratios (RRRs) of prostate cancer by stage and grade, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), associated with weekly alcohol intake and drinking patterns. We found evidence of lower PSA (RGM 0.98, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and decreased risk of low Gleason-grade (RRR 0.96; 95%CI 0.93-0.99) but increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (RRR 1.04; 95%CI 0.99-1.08; p(difference) =0.004) per 10 units/week increase in alcohol consumption, not explained by current BMI, blood pressure, comorbidities, or reverse causation. This is the first large population-based study to find evidence of lower PSA levels for increasing alcohol consumption, with potential public health implications for the detection of prostate cancer. Our results also support a modestly higher risk of high-grade disease for heavy drinkers, but require independent replication to establish the nature of the association of alcohol with low-grade disease, preferably in cohorts with a heterogeneous case-mix.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




Despite numerous investigations, the correlation between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk remains uncertain. This report investigated the association between alcohol use and prostate cancer risk in a prospective cohort study of 294,707 US men aged 50-71 years in 1995-1996. Cox proportional hazards regression models with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for characteristics including age, race, body mass index, physical activity, and family history of prostate cancer, as well as testing for prostate-specific antigen and a digital rectal examination. There were 15,327 nonadvanced and 1,900 advanced prostate cancers identified through 2003 and 514 fatal cases through 2005. Risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer was 25% higher for men consuming >/=6 drinks daily (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.37), 19% higher for men consuming 3-60% of respondents). The authors observed no association between alcohol intake and advanced prostate cancer and an inverse association with fatal prostate cancer among heavy drinkers. These findings suggest that higher alcohol consumption modestly increases nonadvanced prostate cancer risk.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




Acrylamide exposure was investigated in subgroups of the EPIC study population (510 subjects from 9 European countries, randomly selected and stratified by age, gender, and smoking status) using hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its primary metabolite glycidamide (HbGA). Blood samples were analyzed for HbAA and HbGA by HPLC/MS/MS. Statistical models for HbAA and HbGA were developed including body mass index (BMI), educational level, and physical activity. A large variability in acrylamide exposure and metabolism between individuals and country groups was observed with HbAA and HbGA values ranging between 15-623 and 8-377 pmol/g of Hb, respectively. Both adducts differed significantly by country, sex, and smoking status. HbGA values were significantly lower in high alcohol consumers than in moderate consumers. With increasing BMI, HbGA in nonsmokers and HbAA in smokers decreased significantly. In the assessment of potential health effects related to acrylamide exposure, country of origin, BMI, alcohol consumption, sex, and smoking status should be considered.




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