31 March 2023 In Dementia

IMPORTANCE: The impact of serial changes in alcohol consumption on dementia risk has rarely been investigated to date.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of comprehensive patterns of changes in alcohol consumption with the incidence of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD).

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a retrospective cohort study.

Data were obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Adults aged 40 years and older underwent 2 health examinations in 2009 and 2011. The cohort was assessed until December 31, 2018, and statistical analysis was performed in December 2021.

EXPOSURES: Alcohol consumption level was categorized into none (0 g per day), mild (/=30 g per day) drinking. On the basis of changes in alcohol consumption level from 2009 to 2011, participants were categorized into the following groups: nondrinker, quitter, reducer, sustainer, and increaser.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was newly diagnosed AD, VaD, or other dementia.

RESULTS: Among 3 933 382 participants (mean [SD] age, 55.0 [9.6] years; 2 037 948 men [51.8%]), during a mean (SD) follow-up of 6.3 (0.7) years, there were 100 282 cases of all-cause dementia, 79 982 cases of AD, and 11 085 cases of VaD. Compared with sustained nondrinking, sustained mild (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.77-0.81) and moderate (aHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.79-0.88) drinking were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause dementia, whereas sustained heavy drinking was associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia (aHR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12).

Compared with sustained levels of drinking, reducing alcohol consumption from a heavy to a moderate level (aHR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99) and the initiation of mild alcohol consumption (aHR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.96) were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause dementia. Increasers and quitters exhibited an increased risk of all-cause dementia compared with sustainers. The trends in AD and VaD remained consistent.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study of a Korean population, decreased risk of dementia was associated with maintaining mild to moderate alcohol consumption, reducing alcohol consumption from a heavy to a moderate level, and the initiation of mild alcohol consumption, suggesting that the threshold of alcohol consumption for dementia risk reduction is low.

31 March 2023 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: The identification of effective dementia prevention strategies is a major public health priority, due to the enormous and growing societal cost of this condition. Consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been proposed to reduce dementia risk. However, current evidence is inconclusive and is typically derived from small cohorts with limited dementia cases. Additionally, few studies have explored the interaction between diet and genetic risk of dementia.

METHODS: We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to explore the associations between MedDiet adherence, defined using two different scores (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener [MEDAS] continuous and Mediterranean diet Pyramid [PYRAMID] scores), and incident all-cause dementia risk in 60,298 participants from UK Biobank, followed for an average 9.1 years.

The interaction between diet and polygenic risk for dementia was also tested. RESULTS: Higher MedDiet adherence was associated with lower dementia risk (MEDAS continuous: HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65-0.91; PYRAMID: HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.73-1.02 for highest versus lowest tertiles). There was no significant interaction between MedDiet adherence defined by the MEDAS continuous and PYRAMID scores and polygenic risk for dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to a MedDiet was associated with lower dementia risk, independent of genetic risk, underlining the importance of diet in dementia prevention interventions.

31 March 2023 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: It has already been established that the consumption of alcoholic beverages increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in dose-response.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out with 6132 participants of both sexes aged between 35 and 74 years, who were active and retired workers from six Brazilian states. Heavy drinkers were categorized by sex: men > 210 g/week and women > 140 g/week; moderate drinkers: men /=83 mg/dL).

We used binary logistic regression to assess associations between baseline alcohol intake and HDL-C, which were adjusted for sex, age, income, physical activity, kilocalories and body mass index (BMI), and we found an positive association between extremely high HDL-C and the excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages. These participants were mostly women with a high income, lower waist circumference, kilocalorie consumption and also a higher consumption in all categories of alcoholic beverages. CONCLUSION: Excessive alcohol consumption was associated with a higher probability of extremely high HDL-C.

31 March 2023 In Cancer

PURPOSE: Previous observational studies have shown that alcohol and coffee were associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but the causal relationships have not been adequately explored. This study aimed to assess the potential causal associations of alcohol and coffee with CRC risk using Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses in an East Asian population.

METHODS: Publicly available summary-level genome-wide association studies data on ever/never alcohol drinker (n = 165,084), alcohol consumption (n = 58,610), coffee consumption (n = 152,634), and CRC (7062 cases and 195,745 controls) were obtained from the BioBank Japan (BBJ). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were significantly related to the exposures were identified as instrumental variables.

Five, two, and six SNPs were used for ever/never alcohol drinkers, alcohol consumption, and coffee consumption, respectively. The inverse variance weighted method was used as the main MR method to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of CRC risk per one-unit change in exposures.

RESULTS: Genetically predicted ever/never alcohol drinkers (OR: 1.08; 95% CI 1.06, 1.11; P < 0.001) and alcohol consumption (OR: 1.39; 95% CI 1.21, 1.60; P < 0.001) were positively associated with CRC risk. Conversely, genetically predicted coffee consumption was inversely related to CRC risk, with an OR (95% CI) of 0.80 (0.64, 0.99) (P = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Genetically predicted alcohol use and consumption were risk factors for CRC while genetically predicted coffee consumption was a protective factor.

Our findings highlight the effectiveness of keeping healthy dietary habits to prevent CRC. Further studies with more valid SNPs and CRC cases are needed. Validation of our findings is also recommended.

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