26 February 2019 In Cancer

Background and aims: Cancer has emerged as the leading cause of death in human populations. The contribution of alcohol has been highly suspected. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the time trend of digestive cancers in Romania, in terms of mortality rates (1955-2012), and incidence rates (2008-2012), and the alcohol consumption data (1961-2010), aiming to find out if there is any association.

Methods: The data on six more common digestive cancers mortality rates (1955-2012) and incidence rates (2008-2012) were obtained from the historical and recent country statistics and publications of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)/World Health Organisation (WHO), as age-standardized rate expressed per 100,000 population (ASRw). Data on alcohol consumption were obtained from the statistics and publications of WHO and United European Gastroenterology (UEG), as liters of pure alcohol/year. Results: Between 1955-2012, the ASRw of mortality registered an increase of the cancers of the esophagus in M (from 2.03 to 3.90), and of colorectal cancer in both sexes (from 4.65 to 18.20 in M, and from 4.57 to 9.70 in F). Between 1980-2012, an increasing trend of mortality was registered, in both sexes, for the cancers of the pancreas (from 5.50 to 9.30 in M and from 2.92 to 5.10 in F) and liver (from 1.77 to 11.00, in M, and from 0.83 to 4.20 in F). In terms of incidence, between 2008-20012, an increasing trend of ASRw was registered for the cancers of the esophagus in M (from 3.90 to 4.30), gastric cancer in M (from 15.90 to 16.30), colorectal cancer in both sexes (from 27.60 to 34.50 in M and from 19.00 to 20.20 in F), pancreatic cancer in F (form 5.20 to 5.90), and liver cancer in M (from 8.10 to 9.20). Alcohol consumption per capita (liters pure alcohol/year) increased in the same period, from an average of 5 in 1961, to 12.8 in 2003-2005, and to 14.4 in 2008-2010.

Conclusions: Given the parallel increase of some digestive cancers and alcohol consumption registered in our area, alcohol could represent more than a coincidence.

22 February 2019 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

Background and aims: Cancer has emerged as the leading cause of death in human populations. The contribution of alcohol has been highly suspected. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the time trend of digestive cancers in Romania, in terms of mortality rates (1955-2012), and incidence rates (2008-2012), and the alcohol consumption data (1961-2010), aiming to find out if there is any association.

Methods: The data on six more common digestive cancers mortality rates (1955-2012) and incidence rates (2008-2012) were obtained from the historical and recent country statistics and publications of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)/World Health Organisation (WHO), as age-standardized rate expressed per 100,000 population (ASRw). Data on alcohol consumption were obtained from the statistics and publications of WHO and United European Gastroenterology (UEG), as liters of pure alcohol/year. Results: Between 1955-2012, the ASRw of mortality registered an increase of the cancers of the esophagus in M (from 2.03 to 3.90), and of colorectal cancer in both sexes (from 4.65 to 18.20 in M, and from 4.57 to 9.70 in F). Between 1980-2012, an increasing trend of mortality was registered, in both sexes, for the cancers of the pancreas (from 5.50 to 9.30 in M and from 2.92 to 5.10 in F) and liver (from 1.77 to 11.00, in M, and from 0.83 to 4.20 in F). In terms of incidence, between 2008-20012, an increasing trend of ASRw was registered for the cancers of the esophagus in M (from 3.90 to 4.30), gastric cancer in M (from 15.90 to 16.30), colorectal cancer in both sexes (from 27.60 to 34.50 in M and from 19.00 to 20.20 in F), pancreatic cancer in F (form 5.20 to 5.90), and liver cancer in M (from 8.10 to 9.20). Alcohol consumption per capita (liters pure alcohol/year) increased in the same period, from an average of 5 in 1961, to 12.8 in 2003-2005, and to 14.4 in 2008-2010.

Conclusions: Given the parallel increase of some digestive cancers and alcohol consumption registered in our area, alcohol could represent more than a coincidence.

22 February 2019 In General Health

The determination of appropriate dietary strategies for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases remains a challenging and highly relevant issue worldwide. Epidemiological dietary interventions have been studied for decades with contrasting impacts on human health. Moreover, research scientists and physicians have long debated diets encouraging alcohol intake, such as the Mediterranean and French-style diets, with regard to their impact on human health. Understanding the effects of these diets may help to improve in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, further studies are warranted to determine which individual food components, or combinations thereof, have a beneficial impact on different diseases, since a large number of different compounds may occur in a single food, and their fate in vivo is difficult to measure. Most explanations for the positive effects of Mediterranean-style diet, and of the French paradox, have focused largely on the beneficial properties of antioxidants, among other compounds/metabolites, in foods and red wine. Wine is a traditional alcoholic beverage that has been associated with both healthy and harmful effects. Not withstanding some doubts, there is reasonable unanimity among researchers as to the beneficial effects of moderate wine consumption on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and longevity, which have been ascribed to polyphenolic compounds present in wine. Despite this, conflicting findings regarding the impact of alcohol consumption on human health, and contradictory findings concerning the effects of non-alcoholic wine components such as resveratrol, have led to confusion among consumers. In addition to these contradictions and misconceptions, there is a paucity of human research studies confirming known positive effects of polyphenols in vivo. Furthermore, studies balancing both known and unknown prognostic factors have mostly been conducted in vitro or using animal models. Moreover, current studies have shifted focus from red wine to dairy products, such as cheese, to explain the French paradox. The aim of this review is to highlight the contradictions, misconceptions, and scientific facts about wines and diets, giving special focus to the Mediterranean and French diets in disease prevention and human health improvement. To answer the multiplicity of questions regarding the effects of diet and specific diet components on health, and to relieve consumer uncertainty and promote health, comprehensive cross-demographic studies using the latest technologies, which include foodomics and integrated omics approaches, are warranted.

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