04 August 2017 In Drinking Patterns

Introduction: Adolescence and young adulthood are periods of continued biological and psychosocial maturation. Thus, there may be deleterious effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol on neural development and associated cognition during this time. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight neuroimaging research that has specifically examined the effects of binge and heavy drinking on adolescent and young adult brain structure and function.

Methods: We review cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of young binge and heavy drinkers that have examined brain structure (e.g., gray and white matter volume, cortical thickness, white matter microstructure) and investigated brain response using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Results: Binge and heavy-drinking adolescents and young adults have systematically thinner and lower volume in prefrontal cortex and cerebellar regions, and attenuated white matter development. They also show elevated brain activity in fronto-parietal regions during working memory, verbal learning, and inhibitory control tasks. In response to alcohol cues, relative to controls or light-drinking individuals, binge and heavy drinkers show increased neural response mainly in mesocorticolimbic regions, including the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), hippocampus, and amygdala. Mixed findings are present in risky decision-making tasks, which could be due to large variation in task design and analysis.

Conclusions: These findings suggest altered neural structure and activity in binge and heavy-drinking youth may be related to the neurotoxic effects of consuming alcohol in large quantities during a highly plastic neurodevelopmental period, which could result in neural reorganization, and increased risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD).

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alcohol consumption during adolescence greatly increases the likelihood that an alcohol use disorder will develop later in life. Elucidating how alcohol impacts the adolescent brain is paramount to understanding how alcohol use disorders arise. This review focuses on recent work addressing alcohol's unique effect on the adolescent brain.

RECENT FINDINGS: The unique and dynamic state of the developing adolescent brain is discussed with an emphasis on the developmentally distinct effect of alcohol on the dopaminergic reward system and corticolimbic structure and function. Reward neurocircuitry undergoes significant developmental shifts during adolescence, making it particularly sensitive to alcohol in ways that could promote excessive consumption. In addition, developing corticolimbic systems, including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, exhibit enhanced vulnerability to alcohol-induced damage. Disruption of white matter integrity, neurotoxicity and inhibition of adult neurogenesis may underlie alcohol-mediated cognitive dysfunction and lead to decreased behavioral control over consumption.

SUMMARY: In adolescents, alcohol interacts extensively with reward neurocircuitry and corticolimbic structure and function in ways that promote maladaptive behaviors that lead to addiction. Future work is needed to further understand the mechanisms involved in these interactions. Therapeutic strategies that restore proper reward neurochemistry or reverse alcohol-induced neurodegeneration could prove useful in preventing emergence of alcohol use disorders.

Binge alcohol consumption in adolescents is increasing, and studies in animal models show that adolescence is a period of high vulnerability to brain insults. The purpose of the present study was to determine the deleterious effects of binge alcohol on hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent nonhuman primates. Heavy binge alcohol consumption over 11 mo dramatically and persistently decreased hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis. Combinatorial analysis revealed distinct, actively dividing hippocampal neural progenitor cell types in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus that were in transition from stem-like radial glia-like cells (type 1) to immature transiently amplifying neuroblasts (type 2a, type 2b, and type 3), suggesting the evolutionary conservation of milestones of neuronal development in macaque monkeys. Alcohol significantly decreased the number of actively dividing type 1, 2a, and 2b cell types without significantly altering the early neuronal type 3 cells, suggesting that alcohol interferes with the division and migration of hippocampal preneuronal progenitors. Furthermore, the lasting alcohol-induced reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis paralleled an increase in neural degeneration mediated by nonapoptotic pathways. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the hippocampal neurogenic niche during adolescence is highly vulnerable to alcohol and that alcohol decreases neuronal turnover in adolescent nonhuman primate hippocampus by altering the ongoing process of neuronal development. This lasting effect, observed 2 mo after alcohol discontinuation, may underlie the deficits in hippocampus-associated cognitive tasks that are observed in alcoholics.

Aims: Alcohol-dependent people who are middle-aged or older have a widespread loss of cortical grey and white matter, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We examine if brain abnormalities are detectable in alcohol use disorders before the fifth decade (i.e. <40), and the brain structural differences associated with alcohol abuse/dependence in adolescence. Methods: Case-control studies comparing brain structure in alcohol-abusing/-dependent individuals with normal controls in which the mean age of participants was <40 were identified using Medline, EMBASE and PsychInfo. Studies in which mean age was over and under 21 were considered separately. Results: Twelve papers fulfilled inclusion criteria, five in the adolescent (14-21) and seven in the young adult age range. Two independent groups reported hippocampal and prefrontal volume reductions in adolescents, although this was consistently observed only in females. In young adults (aged 21-40), there were grey matter deficits in the PFC in both sexes. Adult women appeared to, particularly, exhibit white matter differences, evident as reduced area of the corpus callosum. Hippocampal volume reduction was observed in one study of young adults study but not another. Conclusion: The available data suggest that quantitative structural abnormalities of the brain are detectable in young alcohol abusers. There is overlap between the abnormalities seen in adolescents and young adults, although hippocampal volume loss is most consistently seen in the former group. The adolescent hippocampus may be particularly susceptible to alcohol, potentially because of an interaction between adolescent brain development and alcohol exposure
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