21 July 2021 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Previously, we reported on associations between dietary patterns and incident acute coronary heart disease (CHD) in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study. Here, we investigated the associations of dietary patterns and a dietary index with recurrent CHD events and all-cause mortality in REGARDS participants with existing CHD.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We included data from 3562 participants with existing CHD in REGARDS. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine the hazard of first recurrence of CHD events-definite or probable MI or acute CHD death-and all-cause mortality associated with quartiles of empirically derived dietary patterns (convenience, plant-based, sweets, Southern, and alcohol and salads) and the Mediterranean diet score. Over a median 7.1 years (interquartile range, 4.4, 8.9 years) follow-up, there were 581 recurrent CHD events and 1098 deaths. In multivariable-adjusted models, the Mediterranean diet score was inversely associated with the hazard of recurrent CHD events (hazard ratio for highest score versus lowest score, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.98; PTrend=0.036). The Southern dietary pattern was adversely associated with the hazard of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio for Q4 versus Q1, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.91; PTrend<0.001). The Mediterranean diet score was inversely associated with the hazard of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio for highest score versus lowest score, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.95; PTrend=0.014).

CONCLUSIONS: The Southern dietary pattern was associated with a greater hazard of all-cause mortality in REGARDS participants. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with both a lower hazard of recurrent CHD events and all-cause mortality.

26 May 2021 In General Health
BACKGROUND: The existing findings of the longitudinal impact of low-to-moderate drinking on symptomatic depression were controversial, as results ranged from finding no association to finding both a protective and adverse association. METHODS: The present study examined the association between low-to-moderate alcohol consumption and incident depressive symptoms by pooled analysis of three European, American and Chinese representative samples of middle-aged and older adults. RESULTS: A total of 29,506 participants (55.5% female) were included. During 278,782 person-years of follow-up, we found that subjects with low-to-moderate drinking had a significantly lower incidence of depressive symptoms compared to never-drinking subjects, with pooled hazard ratios of 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.96) for men and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80-0.95) for women, whereas heavy drinkers failed to show significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, a J-shaped relation between alcohol consumption and incident depressive symptoms was identified in Chinese men, US men, and UK men and women. LIMITATIONS: The classification of depressive symptoms based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale may not be completely comparable to diagnosis from a clinical setting. CONCLUSIONS: Low-to-moderate alcohol consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms on a long-term basis compared to never drinking. Our results support the threshold of moderate drinking in current US guidelines. However, caution should be exercised in engaging in guideline-concordant drinking habits, for even moderate drinkers are at risk of developing heavy drinking habits and experiencing future alcohol-related problems.
26 May 2021 In Drinking Patterns
Objectives: Alcohol consumption and harms among older people are increasing. We examined different demographic characteristics and drinking patterns among an older population. Methods: Secondary analyses of nationally representative Australian data; subjects aged 50+ years (N = 10,856). Two-step cluster analysis was performed to identify demographic groups and alcohol consumption behaviours. Results: Three groups were identified: Group 1 (older, unmarried, and lived alone): >65 years, moderate drinkers, poorest health, psychological distress, social disadvantage, smokers, illicit drug users, and more frequent previous alcohol treatment. Group 3 (older married): >65 years, good health, low psychological distress, less likely to drink at risky levels, and one in five drank daily. Group 2 (younger married): 50-64 years, mostly employed, highest proportion of risky drinkers and of 5+ standard drinks per session, and liberal drinking attitudes with most concern from others about their drinking. Discussion: These demographic typologies can inform targeted prevention efforts for an estimated 1.3 million adults older than 50 years drinking at risky levels.
21 April 2021 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most studies assess the relationship between alcohol and stroke at some point. Little is known about the effect on stroke of drinking status changes over time. This study aimed to examine the association of median 2.4-year drinking status changes with risk of stroke.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 22,691 adults from rural China. Drinking status was assessed at 2004-2006 and in 2008. Participants were divided into four change patterns: consistent non-drinkers, abstainers, starters, and consistent drinkers. A Cox proportional hazards model were performed. We observed 1215 cases of stroke during a median follow-up period of 11.8 years. A faint J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and risk of stroke was found in this population. Based on the amount of alcohol consumption, only current drinkers with >/=721 g/week at baseline in both males and females had a higher risk of stroke [hazard ratio (HR): 1.342; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.070-1.683 and HR: 2.130; CI: 1.041-4.357, respectively]. Based on change patterns, Compared with consistent non-drinkers, the HR (95% CI) for consistent drinkers, abstainers and starters was 1.298 (1.070-1.576), 1.093 (0.877-1.362) and 1.263 (1.034-1.543), respectively. The same trend was observed in male. The HR (95% CI) for consistent drinkers, abstainers and starters was 1.360 (1.098-1.685), 1.139 (0.883-1.470) and 1.364 (1.092-1.703), respectively. No difference was observed in females.

CONCLUSION: High alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of stroke in both males and females. However, based on change patterns, consistent drinkers and starters were at higher risk of stroke only in males.

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