06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

The role of alcoholic beverages in bladder carcinogenesis is still unclear, with conflicting evidence from different studies. We investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and bladder cancer, and the potential interaction between alcohol consumption and other exposures. In a population-based case-control study conducted in Los Angeles County, 1,586 pairs of cases and their matched neighborhood controls were interviewed. Data were analyzed to determine whether bladder cancer risk differs by alcohol consumption, and whether different alcoholic beverages have different effects. The risk of bladder cancer decreased with increasing frequency (p for trend = 0.003) and duration of alcohol consumption (p for trend = 0.017). Subjects who drank more than 4 drinks per day had a 32% lower (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.90) risk of bladder cancer than those who never drank any alcoholic beverage. Beer (p for trend = 0.002) and wine (p for trend = 0.054) consumption were associated with reduced risk of bladder cancer, while hard liquor was not. The reduction in risk was mostly seen among shorter-term smokers who urinated frequently. Alcohol consumption was strongly associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer. The effect was modified by the type of alcoholic beverage, cigarette smoking and frequency of urination.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

Alcohol has not been linked definitively to non-melanoma skin cancer. We examined whether alcohol intake affects the risks for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using data on 54,766 persons enrolled in the prospective Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort. Statistical analyses were based on the Cox proportional hazards model. All hazard ratios (HRs) were multivariate adjusted. Adjustment for exposure to UVR was not possible, but all analyses were adjusted for factors related to susceptibility to UVR, including sun sensitivity, degree of freckling, and number of nevi. A total of 2,409 BCC cases and 198 SCC cases were diagnosed within a median follow-up of 11.4 years. Total current alcohol intake was not associated with BCC risk, but beverage-specific analyses showed an increased BCC risk associated with intake of wine (HR=1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.08, current average alcohol intake, per 10 g per day) and spirits (HR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.21) and a decreased risk with beer (HR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.93-1.00). No convincing associations were found between total alcohol intake and risk for SCC, perhaps because of the limited number of cases. Our findings indicate that alcohol intake may increase the risk for BCC, but the relations seemed to depend on beverage type.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality and is considered to be largely attributable to inappropriate lifestyle and behavior patterns. The purpose of this review was to undertake a comparison of the strength of the associations between known and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer by conducting 10 independent meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies. Studies published between 1966 and January 2008 were identified through EMBASE and MEDLINE, using a combined text word and MESH heading search strategy. Studies were eligible if they reported estimates of the relative risk for colorectal cancer with any of the following: alcohol, smoking, diabetes, physical activity, meat, fish, poultry, fruits and vegetables. Studies were excluded if the estimates were not adjusted at least for age. Overall, data from 103 cohort studies were included. The risk of colorectal cancer was significantly associated with alcohol: individuals consuming the most alcohol had 60% greater risk of colorectal cancer compared with non- or light drinkers (relative risk 1.56, 95% CI 1.42-1.70). Smoking, diabetes, obesity and high meat intakes were each associated with a significant 20% increased risk of colorectal cancer (compared with individuals in the lowest categories for each) with little evidence of between-study heterogeneity or publication bias. Physical activity was protective against colorectal cancer. Public-health strategies that promote modest alcohol consumption, smoking cessation, weight loss, increased physical activity and moderate consumption of red and processed meat are likely to have significant benefits at the population level for reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake has consistently been associated with increased breast cancer incidence in epidemiological studies. However, the relation between alcohol and survival after breast cancer diagnosis is less clear.

METHODS: We investigated whether alcohol intake was associated with survival among 3146 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Alcohol consumption was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

RESULTS: From 1987 to 2008 there were 385 breast cancer-specific deaths and 860 total deaths. No significant association was observed between alcohol intake and breast cancer-specific survival. Women who consumed 10 g per day (corresponding to approximately 0.75 to 1 drinks) or more of alcohol had an adjusted HR (95% CI) of breast cancer-specific death of 1.36 (0.82-2.26;p(trend)=0.47) compared with non-drinkers. A significant inverse association was observed between alcohol and non-breast cancer deaths. Those who consumed 3.4-9.9 g per day of alcohol had a 33% lower risk of death compared with non-drinkers (95% CI 0.50-0.90;p(trend)=0.04).

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that alcohol intake up to approximately one small drink per day does not negatively impact breast cancer-specific survival and a half drink per day is associated with a decreased risk of mortality from other causes.

 

 

 

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