06 May 2014 In Cancer




The first behavioral aspect of mankind that has been commonly acknowledged as one of the main reasons for neoplasms is lifestyle. The specified lifestyle determines the exposure to the variety of carcinogens, whose crucial role in carcinogenesis is doubtless. The purpose of this study was to analyze women's lifestyle and its influence on the risk of developing breast cancer and benign tumors. The participants of the study were healthy women with no changes in mammary glands and women with diagnosed breast cancer or benign tumor. The total number of participants was 555 females aged 35-70 years. Every patient voluntarily filled in an anonymous questionnaire consisting of questions about socioeconomic conditions, number of cigarettes/daily, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Proper education concerning a healthy lifestyle can positively contribute to a reduction in breast cancer. A high value of BMI, especially in the postmenopausal period, is a negative predictive factor increasing the risk of breast cancer. Physical activity decreases the risk of breast cancer. No such relation concerning smoking cigarettes has been proven.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




This review focuses on selected aspects of the relation between alcohol consumption and cancer risk. Heavy alcohol consumption (i.e., >/=4 drinks/day) is significantly associated with an increased risk of about 5-fold for oral and pharyngeal cancer and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 2.5-fold for laryngeal cancer, 50% for colorectal and breast cancers, and 30% for pancreatic cancer. These estimates are based on a large number of epidemiological studies and are generally consistent across strata of several covariates. The evidence suggests that at low doses of alcohol consumption (i.e., </=1 drink/day) the risk is also increased by about 20% for oral and pharyngeal cancer and 30% for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Thus, for these sites there is little evidence of a threshold effect. While consumption of fewer than 3 alcoholic drinks/wk is not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, an intake of 3 to 6 drinks/wk might already yield a (small) increase in risk. On the other hand, intakes up to 1 drink/day are not associated to the risk of laryngeal, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer. The positive association between alcohol consumption and the risk of head and neck cancers is independent from tobacco exposure.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




Excessive alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the effect of modest alcohol consumption or of particular types of beverages on CRC risk remains unclear. We examined whether consumption of total alcohol or specific types of alcoholic beverages relate to overall or site-specific CRC risk in a prospective population study of 24,244 participants and 407 incident CRC cases after 11 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Consumption of specific alcoholic beverages at baseline was collected using a detailed health and lifestyle questionnaire. Total alcohol consumption was not associated with CRC risk before or after adjustment for age, sex, weight, height, and smoking status (HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.51-1.26 for alcohol consumption of > or =21 units/week compared with non-drinkers), and further adjustment for education level, exercise, family history of CRC, and dietary factors did not significantly alter the risk estimates (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.44-1.13). No significant associations were observed between consumption of specific alcoholic beverages (beer, sherry, or spirits) and CRC risk when compared with non-drinkers after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors. Daily consumption of > or =1 unit of wine appeared inversely related to CRC risk (HR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.40-0.94). No evidence was found for sex-specific relationships, and further exclusion of cases incident within 3 years of baseline did not change the associations observed. In this population-based UK cohort, we did not find any significant adverse effect of alcohol over the moderate range of intake on colorectal cancer risk.




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