06 May 2014 In Cancer




OBJECTIVE: To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study.

DESIGN: Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

PARTICIPANTS: 109 118 men and 254 870 women, mainly aged 37-70.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men with about 24 g alcohol, one for women with about 12 g alcohol) and the estimated total annual number of cases of alcohol attributable cancer.

RESULTS: If we assume causality, among men and women, 10% (95% confidence interval 7 to 13%) and 3% (1 to 5%) of the incidence of total cancer was attributable to former and current alcohol consumption in the selected European countries. For selected cancers the figures were 44% (31 to 56%) and 25% (5 to 46%) for upper aerodigestive tract, 33% (11 to 54%) and 18% (-3 to 38%) for liver, 17% (10 to 25%) and 4% (-1 to 10%) for colorectal cancer for men and women, respectively, and 5.0% (2 to 8%) for female breast cancer. A substantial part of the alcohol attributable fraction in 2008 was associated with alcohol consumption higher than the recommended upper limit: 33 037 of 178 578 alcohol related cancer cases in men and 17 470 of 397 043 alcohol related cases in women.

CONCLUSIONS: In western Europe, an important proportion of cases of cancer can be attributable to alcohol consumption, especially consumption higher than the recommended upper limits. These data support current political efforts to reduce or to abstain from alcohol consumption to reduce the incidence of cancer.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: The consumption of alcohol is an underappreciated risk factor for a wide range of conditions. Overall, it is associated with high mortality rates and causes approximately 4% of all deaths worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the general and cancer mortality in a cohort of subjects with alcohol addiction residing in Tuscany (Central Italy).

METHODS: Overall, 2,272 alcoholics (1,467 men and 805 women; mean age at first examination 43.8 years +/- 13.0), treated at the Alcohol Centre of Florence in the period April 1985 to September 2001, were followed until the end of the study period (median follow-up: 9.6 years). A total of 21,855 person-years were available for analyses. Expected deaths were estimated by using age, sex, and calendar-specific regional mortality rates. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.

RESULTS: Six hundred and thirty-six of the 2,272 patients (28.0%) died, yielding an SMR of 5.0 (95% CI: 4.6 to 5.4). The alcoholics had significantly elevated mortality risk from all malignant cancers (SMR = 3.8, 95% CI: 3.3 to 4.4) and a series of specific diseases (infections: SMR = 10.1, 95% CI: 4.8 to 21.1; diabetes: SMR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.9 to 6.7; immunological system, including AIDS: SMR = 8.1, 95% CI: 4.1 to 16.2; nervous system: SMR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.9 to 6.4; cardiovascular system: SMR = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0 to 2.9; respiratory system: SMR = 5.8, 95% CI: 4.2 to 8.0; digestive system: SMR = 26.4, 95% CI: 22.6 to 30.8, including liver cirrhosis (SMR = 40.0, 95% CI: 33.9 to 47.1); violent causes: SMR = 6.6, 95% CI: 5.0 to 8.6). Among malignant cancers, the highest SMRs were found for cancers of the pharynx (SMR = 22.8, 95% CI: 9.5 to 54.8), oral cavity (SMR = 22.2, 95% CI: 13.2 to 37.6), liver (SMR = 13.5, 95% CI: 9.2 to 19.8), and larynx (SMR = 10.7, 95% CI: 5.8 to 19.9). Although women showed higher SMR in comparison with the general population of the area, their overall survival estimates during the follow-up were higher than those for male alcoholics.

CONCLUSIONS: This large series of Italian alcoholics showed a significant increase in total and cancer mortality in comparison with the general population, with female alcoholics reporting higher survival rates.





06 May 2014 In Cancer




OBJECTIVE: In order to provide an updated quantification of the association between alcohol drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of published observational studies.

METHODS: Using PubMed, we performed a literature search of all case-control and cohort studies published as original articles in English up to September 2011. We included 27 observational studies, of which 23 were case-control studies, 3 cohort studies and one pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies, including a total of 16,554 epithelial ovarian cancer cases. We derived pooled meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models.

RESULTS: The pooled relative risk (RR) for any alcohol drinking compared with non/occasional drinking was 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.95-1.05]. The RRs were 0.97 (95% CI, 0.92-1.02), 1.03 (95% CI, 0.96-1.11) and 1.09 (95% CI, 0.80-1.50) for light (1 to /= 3 drinks/day), respectively. In particular, the pooled RR for invasive epithelial ovarian cancers was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.95-1.06), while for borderline cancers was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.74-1.26). Stratified analyses across cancer histotypes revealed a modest protective effect of alcohol on endometrioid epithelial ovarian tumors (RR=0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.96), while no association was found for serous (RR=1.00, 95% CI, 0.84-1.19), mucinous (RR=0.91, 95% CI, 0.78-1.08) and clear cell (RR=0.93, 95% CI, 0.76-1.14) cancers. There was no evidence of publication bias.

CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive meta-analysis provided no evidence of a material association between alcohol drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk.




06 May 2014 In Cancer
Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI
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