18 August 2023 In Cardiovascular System

Background: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was: (i) to examine the association between wine consumption and cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and coronary heart disease (CHD) and (ii) to analyse whether this association could be influenced by personal and study factors, including the participants' mean age, the percentage of female subjects, follow-up time and percentage of current smokers.

Methods: In order to conduct this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched several databases for longitudinal studies from their inception to March 2023. This study was previously registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021293568).

Results: This systematic review included 25 studies, of which the meta-analysis included 22 studies. The pooled RR for the association of wine consumption and the risk of CHD using the DerSimonian and Laird approach was 0.76 (95% CIs: 0.69, 0.84), for the risk of CVD was 0.83 (95% CIs: 0.70, 0.98), and for the risk of cardiovascular mortality was 0.73 (95% CIs: 0.59, 0.90).

Conclusions: This research revealed that wine consumption has an inverse relationship to cardiovascular mortality, CVD, and CHD. Age, the proportion of women in the samples, and follow-up time did not influence this association. Interpreting these findings with prudence was necessary because increasing wine intake might be harmful to individuals who are vulnerable to alcohol because of age, medication, or their pathologies.

18 August 2023 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We investigated the causal relevance of alcohol intake with measures of carotid artery thickness and atherosclerosis in Chinese adults.

METHODS: The study included 22,384 adults from the China Kadoorie Biobank, with self-reported alcohol use at baseline and resurvey, carotid artery ultrasound measurements, and genotyping data for ALDH2-rs671 and ADH1B-rs1229984. Associations of carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), any carotid plaque, and total plaque burden (derived from plaque number and size) with self-reported (conventional analyses) and genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake (Mendelian randomization) were assessed using linear and logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Overall 34.2% men and 2.1% women drank alcohol regularly at baseline. Mean cIMT was 0.70 mm in men and 0.64 mm in women, with 39.1% and 26.5% having carotid plaque, respectively. Among men, cIMT was not associated with self-reported or genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake. The risk of plaque increased significantly with self-reported intake among current drinkers (odds ratio 1.42 [95% CI 1.14-1.76] per 280 g/week), with directionally consistent findings with genotype-predicted mean intake (1.21 [0.99-1.49]). Higher alcohol intake was significantly associated with higher carotid plaque burden in both conventional (0.19 [0.10-0.28] mm higher per 280 g/week) and genetic analyses (0.09 [0.02-0.17]). Genetic findings in women suggested the association of genotype-predicted alcohol with carotid plaque burden in men was likely to due to alcohol itself, rather than pleiotropic genotypic effects.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher alcohol intake was associated with a higher carotid plaque burden, but not with cIMT, providing support for a potential causal association of alcohol intake with carotid atherosclerosis.

18 August 2023 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The etiologic role of genetic variation in genes involved in ethanol metabolism has not been established, with little information available among women of African ancestry.

METHODS: Our analysis from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium included 2889 U.S. Black women who were current drinkers at the time of breast cancer diagnosis (N cases = 715) and had available genetic data for four ethanol metabolism genomic regions (ADH, ALDH, CYP2E1, and ALDH2). We used generalized estimating equations to calculate genetic effects, gene* alcohol consumption (>/= 7drinks/week vs. < 7/week) interactions, and joint main plus interaction effects of up to 23,247 variants in ethanol metabolism genomic regions on odds of breast cancer.

RESULTS: Among current drinkers, 21% of cases and 14% of controls reported consuming >/= 7 drinks per week. We identified statistically significant genetic effects for rs79865122-C in CYP2E1 with odds of ER- breast cancer and odds of triple negative breast cancer, as well as a significant joint effect with odds of ER- breast cancer (>/= 7drinks per week OR = 3.92, < 7 drinks per week OR = 0.24, p(joint) = 3.74 x 10(-6)). In addition, there was a statistically significant interaction of rs3858704-A in ALDH2 with consumption of >/= 7 drinks/week on odds of triple negative breast cancer (>/= 7drinks per week OR = 4.41, < 7 drinks per week OR = 0.57, p(int) = 8.97 x 10(-5)).

CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of information on the impact of genetic variation in alcohol metabolism genes on odds of breast cancer among Black women. Our analysis of variants in four genomic regions harboring ethanol metabolism genes in a large consortium of U.S. Black women identified significant associations between rs79865122-C in CYP2E1 and odds of ER- and triple negative breast cancer. Replication of these findings is warranted.

27 April 2023 In General Health

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to shed light on contradictory associations of alcohol intake with waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) by examining 5-yr changes in alcohol intake in relation to 5-yr WC and BMI changes. METHODS: This prospective study included 4,355 participants (1,974 men and 2,381 women) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study at baseline (1985-1986) and followed over 25 years (2010-2011). Longitudinal random effects linear regression models were used to test whether changes in drinking (defined categorically) as starting to drink, increasing, decreasing, stable drinking or stopping drinking (versus stable non-drinking) over a series of 5-yr periods were associated with corresponding 5-yr WC and BMI changes. Associations with 5-yr changes (defined categorically as starting, stable or stopping) in drinking level (i.e., light/moderate and excessive) and 5-yr changes (defined categorically as increasing, no change, or decreasing) by beverage type (i.e., beer, wine and liquor/mixed drinks) were also examined.

RESULTS: In men, compared to stable non-drinking, decreasing total alcohol intake was associated with lower 5-yr WC (beta:-0.62 cm; 95% CI: -1.09, -0.14 cm) and BMI gains (beta:-0.20 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.30, -0.03 kg/m2) and stopping excessive drinking was associated with lower 5-yr WC gains (beta:-0.77 cm; 95% CI: -1.51, -0.03 cm). In women, compared to those with stable non-drinking habits, starting light/moderate drinking was associated with lower 5-yr WC (beta: -0.78 cm; 95% CI: -1.29, -0.26 cm) and BMI gains (beta:-0.42 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.64, -0.20 kg/m2). Increasing wine intake was associated with a lower 5-yr BMI gain (beta:-0.27 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.03 kg/m2). Decreasing liquor/mixed drink (beta:-0.33 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.56, -0.09 kg/m2) intake was associated with lower 5-yr WC (beta:-0.88 cm; 95% CI: -1.43, -0.34 cm) and BMI (beta:-0.33 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.56, -0.09 kg/m2) gains. CONCLUSIONS: Associations of alcohol intake with obesity measures are complex. In women, wine and liquor/mixed drink intakes had contrasting associations with WC and BMI change. In men, decreasing weekly alcoholic beverage intake with an emphasis on stopping excessive consumption may be beneficial in managing WC and BMI gains.

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