06 May 2014 In General Health
AIM: To examine the association between intake of alcohol and risk of adult-onset asthma. METHODS: Using data from two multidisciplinary questionnaire surveys we prospectively studied 19,349 twins, 12-41 years of age, from the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. RESULTS: The eight-year incidence of asthma was 4.3%. After adjustment for sex, age, BMI, physical activity, educational level and smoking, the risk of new-onset asthma was significantly related to overall alcohol intake in a U-shaped manner with the lowest risk observed in the group with a moderate weekly intake of alcohol (1-6 units/week), p = 0.006. The highest risk of asthma was observed in rare/never drinkers (/=4 units/day) was also increased, however not statistically significant, OR = 1.13 (0.54-2.36), p = 0.747. The risk of new-onset asthma was lower for subjects with wine preference (3.3%) compared with beer preference (4.3%) or no preference (4.4%). After multivariable adjustment, wine preference was inversely related to incident asthma compared with beer preference. However, this finding was not statistically significant, OR = 0.87 (0.51-1.46), p = 0.590. CONCLUSION: Alcohol intake is associated with new-onset asthma in adults with a U-shaped association between amount of alcohol intake and the risk of asthma
06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

Chronic alcohol abuse is a systemic disorder and a risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A significant amount of ingested alcohol reaches airway passages in the lungs and can be metabolized via oxidative and non-oxidative pathways. About 90% of the ingested alcohol is metabolized via hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-catalyzed oxidative pathway. Alcohol can also be metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), particularly during chronic alcohol abuse. Both the oxidative pathways, however, are associated with oxidative stress due to the formation of acetaldehyde and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS). Alcohol ingestion is also known to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which can be mediated by oxidative and/or non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol. An acute as well as chronic alcohol ingestions impair protective antioxidants, oxidize reduced glutathione (GSH, cellular antioxidant against ROS and oxidative stress), and suppress innate and adaptive immunity in the lungs. Oxidative stress and suppressed immunity in the lungs of chronic alcohol abusers collectively are considered to be major risk factors for infection and development of pneumonia, and such diseases as ARDS and COPD. Prior human and experimental studies attempted to identify common mechanisms by which alcohol abuse directly causes toxicity to alveolar epithelium and respiratory tract, particularly lungs. In this review, the metabolic basis of lung injury, oxidative and ER stress and immunosuppression in experimental models and alcoholic patients, as well as potential immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies for improving host defenses against alcohol-induced pulmonary infections are discussed.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

PURPOSE: To assess whether alcohol consumption is associated with the long-term incidence of cataract or cataract surgery. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 3654 persons aged 49+ years were examined at baseline and 2564 were re-examined after 5 and/or 10 years. Lens photographs were taken at each visit and assessed using the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System by masked graders. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption. RESULTS: No significant associations were observed between alcohol consumption and long-term risk of nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular cataract. However, after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, diabetes, myopia, socioeconomic status, and steroid use, total alcohol consumption of over 2 standard drinks per day was associated with a significantly increased likelihood of cataract surgery, when compared to total daily alcohol consumption of 1 to 2 standard drinks (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-3.81). Abstinence from alcohol was also associated with increased likelihood of cataract surgery when compared to a total alcohol consumption of 1 to 2 standard drinks per day (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.25-4.46). CONCLUSION: A U-shaped association of alcohol consumption with the long-term risk of cataract surgery was found in this older cohort: moderate consumption was associated with 50% lower cataract surgery incidence, compared either to abstinence or heavy alcohol consumption.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

Growing evidence indicates that the Mediterranean diet is beneficial to human health. Many epidemiological and research studies have reported that this diet pattern is able to limit the development and progression of coronary heart disease, one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries worldwide. There is now a large consensus about recommending Mediterranean diet to reduce atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease and to limit the risk of fatal complications such as sudden cardiac death and heart failure. This review underlines the role of two of the specific components of the Mediterranean diet, namely marine omega-3 fatty acids and wine, and the link between moderate wine consumption and fatty acid profiles.

 

 

 

Page 8 of 38

Disclaimer

The authors have taken reasonable care in ensuring the accuracy of the information herein at the time of publication and are not responsible for any errors or omissions. Read more on our disclaimer and Privacy Policy.