23 November 2022 In Cancer

The relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer has no consistent results both in epidemiological studies and animal models. The inaccuracy of alcohol consumption dosage in the experimental design maybe leads to inconsistent results and makes the researchers ignore the effect of very-light alcohol consumption on cancer. To determine the effects of very-light alcohol consumption on cancer, in this study, the manner of gavage was used to control the alcohol consumption accurately. The impacts of age and time of drinking on cancer progression were also evaluated in this study. Here, we find that a certain range of alcohol consumption (from 0.5% w/v to 2.0% w/v) can suppress tumor development in the breast metastasis mouse model by controlling the alcohol consumption dosage accurately. RNA sequencing analyses were performed in primary tumors and related metastases from the NC group and 1.0% w/v group. The results of primary tumors and related metastases indicated that chronic very-light alcohol consumption downregulates breast tumor-associated oncogenes in primary tumors and regulates the immune system and metabolic system in metastatic carcinoma. To provide the public with drinking recommendations, eight commercial alcohol types were investigated at a dosage of 1.0% w/v. Two types of commercial alcohol, red wine (made in France, brand 1) and baijiu (made in China, brand 1), exerted excellent primary tumor and metastasis inhibitory effects. The untargeted metabolomic analysis of commercial alcohol by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry indicated that baijiu (brand 1) and baijiu (brand 2) exhibited a difference in compositions that can lead to their different anti-cancer effects. These results indicated that a certain range of very light alcohol dosages might have a potential human-cancer inhibition effect.

15 June 2022 In Cardiovascular System

Evidence from research studies reports that wine consumption is associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk, partly through the amelioration of oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of regular light to moderate wine consumption from coronary heart disease (CHD) patients compared to the effect induced by alcohol intake without the presence of wine microconstituents, on oxidation-induced macromolecular damage as well as on endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity. A randomized, single-blind, controlled, three-arm parallel intervention was carried out, in which 64 CHD patients were allocated to three intervention groups. Group A consumed no alcohol, and Group B (wine) and Group C (ethanol) consumed 27 g of alcohol/day for 8 weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks. Urine oxidized guanine species levels, protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) levels, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, were measured. Oxidized guanine species and protein carbonyl levels were significantly increased in the ethanol group during the intervention and were significantly decreased in the wine group. These results support the idea that wine's bioactive compounds may exert antioxidant actions that counteract the macromolecular oxidative damage induced by alcohol in CHD patients.

25 August 2020 In Cardiovascular System
Epidemiological studies of middle-aged populations generally find the relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke to be either U- or J-shaped. This review describes the extent that these relationships are likely to be causal, and the extent that they may be due to specific methodological weaknesses in epidemiological studies. The consistency in the vascular benefit associated with moderate drinking (compared with non-drinking) observed across different studies, together with the existence of credible biological pathways, strongly suggests that at least some of this benefit is real. However, because of biases introduced by: choice of reference categories; reverse causality bias; variations in alcohol intake over time; and confounding, some of it is likely to be an artefact. For heavy drinking, different study biases have the potential to act in opposing directions, and as such, the true effects of heavy drinking on vascular risk are uncertain. However, because of the known harmful effects of heavy drinking on non-vascular mortality, the problem is an academic one. Studies of the effects of alcohol consumption on health outcomes should recognise the methodological biases they are likely to face, and design, analyse and interpret their studies accordingly. While regular moderate alcohol consumption during middle-age probably does reduce vascular risk, care should be taken when making general recommendations about safe levels of alcohol intake. In particular, it is likely that any promotion of alcohol for health reasons would do substantially more harm than good.

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