25 August 2020 In Cardiovascular System
Alcoholic-dilated Cardiomyopathy (ACM) is the most prevalent form of ethanol-induced heart damage. Ethanol induces ACM in a dose-dependent manner, independently of nutrition, vitamin, or electrolyte disturbances. It has synergistic effects with other heart risk factors. ACM produces a progressive reduction in myocardial contractility and heart chamber dilatation, leading to heart failure episodes and arrhythmias. Pathologically, ethanol induces myocytolysis, apoptosis, and necrosis of myocytes, with repair mechanisms causing hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Myocyte ethanol targets include changes in membrane composition, receptors, ion channels, intracellular [Ca(2+)] transients, and structural proteins, and disrupt sarcomere contractility. Cardiac remodeling tries to compensate for this damage, establishing a balance between aggression and defense mechanisms. The final process of ACM is the result of dosage and individual predisposition. The ACM prognosis depends on the degree of persistent ethanol intake. Abstinence is the preferred goal, although controlled drinking may still improve cardiac function. New strategies are addressed to decrease myocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis and try to improve myocyte regeneration, minimizing ethanol-related cardiac damage. Growth factors and cardiomyokines are relevant molecules that may modify this process. Cardiac transplantation is the final measure in end-stage ACM but is limited to those subjects able to achieve abstinence.
25 August 2020 In Phenolic compounds
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the effect of dietary polyphenols on the complex human gut microbiota, and they focused mainly on single polyphenol molecules and select bacterial populations. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of a moderate intake of red wine polyphenols on select gut microbial groups implicated in host health benefits. DESIGN: Ten healthy male volunteers underwent a randomized, crossover, controlled intervention study. After a washout period, all of the subjects received red wine, the equivalent amount of de-alcoholized red wine, or gin for 20 d each. Total fecal DNA was submitted to polymerase chain reaction(PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR to monitor and quantify changes in fecal microbiota. Several biochemical markers were measured. RESULTS: The dominant bacterial composition did not remain constant over the different intake periods. Compared with baseline, the daily consumption of red wine polyphenol for 4 wk significantly increased the number of Enterococcus, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides uniformis, Eggerthella lenta, and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale groups (P
25 August 2020 In Diabetes

Health benefits of moderate wine consumption have been studied during the past decades, first in observational studies and more recently, in experimental settings and randomized controlled studies. Suggested biological pathways include antioxidant, lipid regulating, and anti-inflammatory effects. Both the alcoholic and polyphenolic components of wine are believed to contribute to these beneficial effects.

Although several of these studies demonstrated protective associations between moderate drinking and cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders, and the metabolic syndrome, no conclusive recommendations exist regarding moderate wine consumption. Yet, it is suggested that the physician and patient should discuss alcohol use. In the CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, 224 abstainers with type 2 diabetes were randomized to consume red wine, white wine or mineral water for two years.

Here, we summarize our previous findings, offer new evidence concerning the differential effects of wine consumption among men and women, and further suggest that initiating moderate alcohol consumption among well-controlled persons with type 2 diabetes is apparently safe, in regard to changes in heart rate variability and carotid plaque formation

26 June 2020 In Cancer

The health benefits of moderate wine consumption have been extensively studied during the last few decades. Some studies have demonstrated protective associations between moderate drinking and several diseases including oral cavity cancer (OCC). However, due to the various adverse effects related to ethanol content, the recommendation of moderate wine consumption has been controversial.

The polyphenolic components of wine contribute to its beneficial effects with different biological pathways, including antioxidant, lipid regulating and anti-inflammatory effects. On the other hand, in the oral cavity, ethanol is oxidized to form acetaldehyde, a metabolite with genotoxic properties. This review is a critical compilation of both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of wine consumption on OCC.

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