27 July 2018 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking prevalence rates are highest in young adults; however, little is known about the effects of binge drinking on blood pressure (BP) and other cardiovascular health metrics in individuals between 18 and 45 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of regular binge drinking on BP, lipid and glucose levels and to determine if there were differences in these associations between men and women.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from NHANES (the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for men and women 18 to 45 years old who were non-binge drinkers, binge drank 1 to 12 times, or binge drank >12 times in the past year. After controlling for diet and physical activity, both categories of men binge drinkers compared with non-binge drinkers had higher systolic BP (121.8 and 119.0 mm Hg versus 117.5 mm Hg) and total cholesterol (215.5 and 217.9 mg/dL versus 207.8 mg/dL) values. There were no effects of binge drinking on systolic BP or total cholesterol in women. Binge drinking in men and women was associated with higher high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol values. The effects of binge drinking on glucose parameters in men and women were variable.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with young adult women, repeated binge drinking in men was associated with an elevated systolic BP, and greater frequency of binge drinking in men was associated with a more unfavorable lipid profile. In young adults with elevated systolic BP, practitioners should consider the possible role of binge drinking and address the importance of reducing alcohol intake as an important cardiovascular risk reduction strategy.

27 July 2018 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of hypertension, the risk associated with low levels of alcohol intake in men and women is unclear.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched Medline and Embase for original cohort studies on the association between average alcohol consumption and incidence of hypertension in people without hypertension. Random-effects meta-analyses and metaregressions were conducted. Data from 20 articles with 361 254 participants (125 907 men and 235 347 women) and 90 160 incident cases of hypertension (32 426 men and 57 734 women) were included. In people drinking 1 to 2 drinks/day (12 g of pure ethanol per drink), incidence of hypertension differed between men and women (relative riskwomen vs men=0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.93). In men, the risk for hypertension in comparison with abstainers was relative risk=1.19 (1.07-1.31; I(2)=59%), 1.51 (1.30-1.76), and 1.74 (1.35-2.24) for consumption of 1 to 2, 3 to 4, and 5 or more standard drinks per day, respectively. In women, there was no increased risk for 1 to 2 drinks/day (relative risk=0.94; 0.88-1.01; I(2)=73%), and an increased risk for consumption beyond this level (relative risk=1.42; 1.22-1.66).

CONCLUSIONS: Any alcohol consumption was associated with an increase in the risk for hypertension in men. In women, there was no risk increase for consumption of 1 to 2 drinks/day and an increased risk for higher consumption levels. We did not find evidence for a protective effect of alcohol consumption in women, contrary to earlier meta-analyses.

27 July 2018 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Although epidemiological evidence for the beneficial effect of low alcohol consumption on myocardial infarction is strong, the impact of heavy drinking episodes is less clear.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between the risk for acute myocardial infarction occurrence and alcohol consumption.

METHODS: Our hospital-based case-control study comprised 374 participants (187 newly diagnosed patients with myocardial infarction and 187 controls, individually matched by gender, age, and place of residence). This study was performed in Kragujevac (a city in Serbia) during 2010. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

RESULTS: The history of alcohol consumption in patients with acute myocardial infarction and their controls did not differ significantly: the percentage of those that were consuming alcohol was slightly higher in cases (54.5%) than in controls (50.3%). The habit of binge drinking during the previous 12 months was significantly more common in cases (25.1%) than in controls (12.8%): adjusted OR = 2.2 (95%CI = 1.2-4.2, p = 0.017), p for trend = 0.015. Analysis of binge drinking by age, gender and place of residence revealed that the increase in risk for acute myocardial infarction was associated with older age (adjusted OR = 5.1, 95%CI = 1.7-15.1, p for trend = 0.010), male gender (adjusted OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.1-5.2, p for trend = 0.028) and rural place of residence (adjusted OR = 4.8, 95%CI = 1.3-18.5, p for trend = 0.033).

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that binge drinking is associated with twice the risk for myocardial infarction compared to not drinking. Since consumption of alcohol is very common in the Serbian population, the effect of binge drinking on myocardial infarction should be considered an important public health issue.

27 July 2018 In Cancer
BACKGROUND: While current research is largely consistent as to the harms of heavy drinking in terms of both cancer incidence and mortality, there are disparate messages regarding the safety of light-moderate alcohol consumption, which may confuse public health messages. We aimed to evaluate the association between average lifetime alcohol intakes and risk of both cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report a population-based cohort study using data from 99,654 adults (68.7% female), aged 55-74 years, participating in the U.S. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality, cancer incidence (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer), and combined risk of cancer and death across categories of self-reported average lifetime alcohol intakes, with adjustment for potential confounders. During 836,740 person-years of follow-up (median 8.9 years), 9,599 deaths and 12,763 primary cancers occurred. Positive linear associations were observed between lifetime alcohol consumption and cancer-related mortality and total cancer incidence. J-shaped associations were observed between average lifetime alcohol consumption and overall mortality, cardiovascular-related mortality, and combined risk of death or cancer. In comparison to lifetime light alcohol drinkers (1-3 drinks per week), lifetime never or infrequent drinkers (<1 drink/week), as well as heavy (2-<3 drinks/day) and very heavy drinkers (3+ drinks/day) had increased overall mortality and combined risk of cancer or death. Corresponding hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for combined risk of cancer or death, respectively, were 1.09 (1.01-1.13) for never drinkers, 1.08 (1.03-1.13) for infrequent drinkers, 1.10 (1.02-1.18) for heavy drinkers, and 1.21 (1.13-1.30) for very heavy drinkers. This analysis is limited to older adults, and residual confounding by socioeconomic factors is possible. CONCLUSIONS: The study supports a J-shaped association between alcohol and mortality in older adults, which remains after adjustment for cancer risk. The results indicate that intakes below 1 drink per day were associated with the lowest risk of death. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00339495 (ClinicalTrials.gov)
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