26 March 2015 In Social and Cultural Aspects

IMPORTANCE: Alcohol is the most common drug among youth and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Billions of dollars are spent annually marketing alcohol.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the reach of television alcohol advertising and its effect on drinking among underage youth.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 involving 2541 US adolescents 15 to 23 years of age at baseline, with 1596 of these adolescents completing the follow-up survey. Cued recall of television advertising images for top beer and distilled spirits brands that aired nationally in 2010-2011 (n = 351). Images were digitally edited to remove branding, and the respondents were queried about 20 randomly selected images. An alcohol advertising receptivity score was derived (1 point each for having seen the ad and for liking it, and 2 points for correct brand identification). Fast-food ads that aired nationally in 2010-2011 (n = 535) were similarly queried to evaluate message specificity.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Among the underage youth at baseline, we determined (1) the onset of drinking among those who never drank, (2) the onset of binge drinking among those who were never binge drinkers, and (3) the onset of hazardous drinking among those with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption subscore of less than 4. Multivariate regressions were used to predict each outcome, controlling for covariates (demographics, drinking among friends and parents, and sensation seeking), weighting to the US population, and using multiple imputation to address loss to follow-up.

RESULTS: Underage participants were only slightly less likely than participants of legal drinking age to have seen alcohol ads (the mean percentage of ads seen were 23.4%, 22.7%, and 25.6%, respectively, for youth 15-17, 18-20, and 21-23 years of age; P < .005). The transition to binge and hazardous drinking occurred for 29% and 18% of youth 15 to 17 years of age and for 29% and 19% of youth 18 to 20 years years of age, respectively. Among underage participants, the alcohol advertising receptivity score independently predicted the onset of drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.69 [95% CI, 1.17-2.44]), the onset of binge drinking (AOR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.08-1.77]), and the onset of hazardous drinking (AOR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.19-1.86]). Fast-food advertising receptivity was not associated with any drinking outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Receptivity to television alcohol advertising predicted the transition to multiple drinking outcomes. The findings are consistent with the idea that marketing self-regulation has failed to keep television alcohol advertising from reaching large numbers of underage persons and affecting their drinking patterns.

26 March 2015 In Social and Cultural Aspects

BACKGROUND: Different drinkers may experience specific risks depending on where they consume alcohol. This longitudinal study examined drinking patterns, and demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with youth drinking in different contexts.

METHODS: We used survey data from 665 past-year alcohol-using youths (ages 13 to 16 at Wave 1) in 50 midsized California cities. Measures of drinking behaviors and drinking in 7 contexts were obtained at 3 annual time points. Other characteristics included gender, age, race, parental education, weekly disposable income, general deviance, and past-year cigarette smoking.

RESULTS: Results of multilevel regression analyses show that more frequent past-year alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of drinking at parties and at someone else's home. Greater continued volumes of alcohol (i.e., heavier drinking) was associated with increased likelihood of drinking at parking lots or street corners. Deviance was positively associated with drinking in most contexts, and past-year cigarette smoking was positively associated with drinking at beaches or parks and someone else's home. Age and deviance were positively associated with drinking in a greater number of contexts. The likelihood of youth drinking at parties and someone else's home increased over time, whereas the likelihood of drinking at parking lots/street corners decreased. Also, deviant youths progress to drinking in their own home, beaches or parks, and restaurants/bars/nightclubs more rapidly.

CONCLUSIONS: The contexts in which youths consume alcohol change over time. These changes vary by individual characteristics. The redistribution of drinking contexts over the early life course may contribute to specific risks associated with different drinking contexts.

05 March 2015 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is a major global risk factor for mortality and morbidity. Much discussion has revolved around the diverse findings on the complex relationship between alcohol consumption and the leading cause of death and disability, ischemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature up to August 2014 using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify meta-analyses and observational studies examining the relationship between alcohol drinking, drinking patterns, and IHD risk, in comparison to lifetime abstainers. In a narrative review we have summarized the many meta-analyses published in the last 10 years, discussing the role of confounding and experimental evidence. We also conducted meta-analyses examining episodic heavy drinking among on average moderate drinkers. RESULTS: The narrative review showed that the use of current abstainers as the reference group leads to systematic bias. With regard to average alcohol consumption in relation to lifetime abstainers, the relationship is clearly J-shaped, supported by short-term experimental evidence and similar associations within strata of potential confounders, except among smokers. Women experience slightly stronger beneficial associations and also a quicker upturn to a detrimental effect at lower levels of average alcohol consumption compared to men. There was no evidence that chronic or episodic heavy drinking confers a beneficial effect on IHD risk. People with alcohol use disorder have an elevated risk of IHD (1.5- to 2-fold). Results from our quantitative meta-analysis showed that drinkers with average intake of
04 February 2015 In General Health

Background/Aims: The association between alcohol consumption and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been reported. What is not known is whether drinking pattern combined with the weekly frequency of alcohol consumption and the quantity per drinking day is associated with the risk of CKD.

Methods: We enrolled 9,112 Japanese nondiabetic men aged 40 to 55 years with absence of proteinuria, an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or higher, and not on antihypertensive medications at baseline. CKD was defined if eGFR was <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. The weekly frequency classification was nondrinkers, 1-3 drinking days/week, or 4-7 drinking days/week. The quantity consumed per drinking day was classified as 0.1-23.0 g ethanol/drinking day, 23.1-46.0 g ethanol/drinking day, 46.1-69.0 g ethanol/drinking day, and ≥69.1 g ethanol/drinking day.

Results: During the 79,099 person-years, 1,253 subjects developed CKD. Compared to nondrinkers, those who consumed 23.1-46.0 or 46.1-69.0 g ethanol/drinking day on 4-7 drinking days/week had a decreased risk of CKD (multiple-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.62 (0.52-0.74) and 0.76 (0.59-0.97), respectively). The association between the quantity per drinking day and the incidence of CKD was U-shaped among each category of the weekly frequency. HRs within similar categories of quantity per drinking day were lower in the 4-7 drinking days/week group than in the 1-3 drinking days/week group.

Conclusion: Among middle-aged Japanese men, the people who drank middle-range quantity, specifically who drank 4-7 days/week, had lower risk of CKD than nondrinkers.

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