23 September 2021 In Cardiovascular System
This review aims at summarizing updated evidence on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with consumption of specific food items to substantiate dietary strategies for atherosclerosis prevention. A systematic search on PubMed was performed to identify meta-analyses of cohort studies and RCTs with CVD outcomes. The evidence is highly concordant in showing that, for the healthy adult population, low consumption of salt and foods of animal origin, and increased intake of plant-based foods-whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts-are linked with reduced atherosclerosis risk. The same applies for the replacement of butter and other animal/tropical fats with olive oil and other unsaturated-fat-rich oil. Although the literature reviewed overall endorses scientific society dietary recommendations, some relevant novelties emerge. With regard to meat, new evidence differentiates processed and red meat-both associated with increased CVD risk-from poultry, showing a neutral relationship with CVD for moderate intakes. Moreover, the preferential use of low-fat dairies in the healthy population is not supported by recent data, since both full-fat and low-fat dairies, in moderate amounts and in the context of a balanced diet, are not associated with increased CVD risk; furthermore, small quantities of cheese and regular yogurt consumption are even linked with a protective effect. Among other animal protein sources, moderate fish consumption is also supported by the latest evidence, although there might be sustainability concerns. New data endorse the replacement of most high glycemic index (GI) foods with both whole grain and low GI cereal foods. As for beverages, low consumption not only of alcohol, but also of coffee and tea is associated with a reduced atherosclerosis risk while soft drinks show a direct relationship with CVD risk. This review provides evidence-based support for promoting appropriate food choices for atherosclerosis prevention in the general population.
21 July 2021 In General Health
BACKGROUND: Previously, we reported on associations between dietary patterns and incident acute coronary heart disease (CHD) in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study. Here, we investigated the associations of dietary patterns and a dietary index with recurrent CHD events and all-cause mortality in REGARDS participants with existing CHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included data from 3562 participants with existing CHD in REGARDS. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine the hazard of first recurrence of CHD events-definite or probable MI or acute CHD death-and all-cause mortality associated with quartiles of empirically derived dietary patterns (convenience, plant-based, sweets, Southern, and alcohol and salads) and the Mediterranean diet score. Over a median 7.1 years (interquartile range, 4.4, 8.9 years) follow-up, there were 581 recurrent CHD events and 1098 deaths. In multivariable-adjusted models, the Mediterranean diet score was inversely associated with the hazard of recurrent CHD events (hazard ratio for highest score versus lowest score, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.98; PTrend=0.036). The Southern dietary pattern was adversely associated with the hazard of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio for Q4 versus Q1, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.91; PTrend
23 November 2020 In Phenolic compounds

The Mediterranean diet pattern is increasingly associated with improved metabolic health. Two mechanisms by which consuming a Mediterranean diet pattern may contribute to improved metabolic health are modulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and reduction of metabolic endotoxemia. Metabolic endotoxemia, defined as a 2- to 3-fold increase in circulating levels of bacterial endotoxin, has been proposed as a cause of inflammation during metabolic dysfunction.

As the largest source of endotoxins in the human body, the GI microbiota represents a crucial area for research on strategies for reducing endotoxemia. Diets high in saturated fat and low in fiber contribute to metabolic endotoxemia through several mechanisms, including changes in the GI microbiome and bacterial fermentation end products, intestinal physiology and barrier function, and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids.

Thus, the Mediterranean diet pattern, rich in unsaturated fats and fiber, may be one dietary strategy to reduce metabolic endotoxemia. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the differential effects of dietary saturated and unsaturated fats on the microbiota and metabolic health, but human studies are lacking. The role of dietary fiber and the GI microbiome in metabolic endotoxemia is underinvestigated.

Clinical research on the effects of different types of dietary fat and fiber on the GI microbiota and GI and systemic inflammation is necessary to determine efficacious dietary strategies for reducing metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation, and subsequent metabolic disease.

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