05 December 2018 In Cancer

Alcohol has consistently been shown to increase breast cancer (BC) risk. This association may be modified by single nucleotide polymorphisms in alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes ADH1B and ADH1C. The Netherlands Cohort Study comprises 62 573 women, aged 55-69 years at baseline (1986). Follow-up for postmenopausal BC for 20.3 years was available. Genotyping of 6 tag SNPs in ADH1B and ADH1C, respectively, was performed on DNA from toenails. A case-cohort approach was used for analysis (complete data available for: nsubcohort= 1301; ncases= 1630). Cox regression models for postmenopausal BC were applied to determine marginal effects of alcohol intake and SNPs using a dominant genetic model, as well as multiplicative interaction of the two. Results were also obtained for subtypes by estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Multiple testing was adjusted for by applying the false discovery rate (FDR). Alcohol intake (categorical) increased the risk of postmenopausal BC (ptrend=0.031). Trends for ER and PR subgroups followed a similar pattern. Continuous modelling of alcohol resulted in a hazard rate ratio (HR) for overall postmenopausal BC of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.01 - 1.19) per 10g/d of alcohol. SNPs were not associated with BC risk. No effect modification of the alcohol-BC association by SNP genotype was seen after FDR-correction in overall BC and ER/PR subgroups. In conclusion, alcohol was shown to increase the risk of postmenopausal BC. This association was not significantly modified by common ADH1B and ADH1C SNPs, neither in overall BC nor in hormone receptor defined subtypes.

05 December 2018 In General Health

The beneficial association of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with longevity has been consistently demonstrated, but the associations of MedDiet components have not been accordingly evaluated. We performed an updated meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies published up to 31 December 2017, to quantify the association of adherence to MedDiet, expressed as an index/score (MDS) and of its components with all-cause mortality. We estimated summary relative risks (SRR) and 95 % CI using random effects models. On the basis of thirty studies (225 600 deaths), SRR for the study-specific highest/lowest and per 1sd MDS increment were 0.79 (95 % CI 0.77, 0.81, Iota 2=42 %, P-heterogeneity 0.02) and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.90, 0.94, Iota 2 56 %, P-heterogeneity <0.01), respectively. Inversely, statistically significant associations were evident in stratified analyses by country, MDS range and publication year, with some evidence for heterogeneity across countries overall (P-heterogeneity 0.011), as well as across European countries (P=0.018). Regarding MDS components, relatively stronger and statistically significant inverse associations were highlighted for moderate/none-excessive alcohol consumption (0.86, 95 % CI 0.77, 0.97) and for above/below-the-median consumptions of fruit (0.88, 95 % CI 0.83, 0.94) and vegetables (0.94, 95 % CI 0.89, 0.98), whereas a positive association was apparent for above/below-the-median intake of meat (1.07, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.13). Our meta-analyses confirm the inverse association of MedDiet with mortality and highlight the dietary components that influence mostly this association. Our results are important for better understanding the role of MedDiet in health and proposing dietary changes to effectively increase adherence to this healthy dietary pattern.

27 September 2018 In General Health

The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with prolonged survival in the general population, but no meta-analysis has apparently investigated the potential health benefits in relation to mortality in the elderly. We performed a longitudinal analysis on 5200 individuals aged >/=65 years identified within the general population recruited in the Moli-sani study cohort (2005-2010). Adherence to the MD was appraised by the a priori Mediterranean diet score (MDS; range 0-9). Survival estimates were derived using Cox regression and competing risk models. For the meta-analysis, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched from inception until April 2018 to identify prospective studies on the MD and death risk in the elderly. Over a median follow-up of 8.1 years, a total of 900 deaths were ascertained in the elderly sub-sample of the Moli-sani cohort. A one-point increase in the MDS was associated with lower risk of all-cause, coronary artery disease/cerebrovascular and non-cardiovascular/non-cancer mortality (multi-variable hazard ratio (HR)=0.94; 95 % CI 0.90, 0.98; HR=0.91; 95 % CI 0.83, 0.99 and HR=0.89; 95 % CI 0.81, 0.96, respectively). In a meta-analysis of seven prospective studies, including our results, for a total of 11 738 participants and 3874 deaths, one-point increment in MDS was associated with 5 % (4-7 %) lower risk of all-cause death. An inverse linear dose-response relationship was found from a meta-analysis including three studies. In conclusion, a prospective cohort study and a meta-analysis showed that closer adherence to the MD was associated with prolonged survival in elderly individuals, suggesting the appropriateness for older persons to adopt/preserve the MD to maximise their prospects for survival.

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