25 January 2019 In Cardiovascular System

Light-to-moderate regular alcohol consumption has been associated with reduced mortality, heart failure, and sudden death, with a well described "U-shaped" relationship. We sought to determine whether markers of diffuse ventricular fibrosis as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) T1 mapping differ between nondrinkers and regular drinkers. We prospectively recruited 165 participants to undergo 3T CMR ventricular T1 mapping which included 120 regular light-to-moderate drinkers (7 to 28 standard drinks per week for >12 months) and 45 age and gender-matched nondrinking controls (1 standard drink approximately 12 g alcohol). Diffuse ventricular fibrosis was assessed using ShMOLLI T1 mapping sequences performed in mid-short axis. Native T1, postcontrast T1 times and extracellular volume were compared in the left ventricle between regular drinkers and lifelong nondrinkers. In total 165 participants (mean age 59 +/- 12 years, 70% male, 36% hypertension, mean LVEF 58 +/- 11%) underwent CMR. Moderate alcohol intake (mean alcohol intake 16 +/- 6 SDs/week) was associated with lower markers of diffuse ventricular fibrosis: native T1 time 1140 +/- 47 vs 1173 +/- 39 ms, p < 0.001; postcontrast T1 time 470 +/- 47 vs 445 +/- 43 ms, p=0.01; extracellular volume 25.0 +/- 2.7% vs 27.0 +/- 2.8%, p=0.003 despite similar LV size (p=0.55) and mass compared with nondrinkers (p=0.78). Quantity of alcohol intake and beverage type did not predict lower native T1 times. In conclusion, light-to-moderate or "social" alcohol consumption is associated with T1 changes on CMR suggestive of a reduction in diffuse ventricular fibrosis. These preliminary findings may provide some insights into the association between modest alcohol intake and reduction in sudden death and heart failure.

25 January 2019 In Cardiovascular System

Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with atherosclerotic complications. However, elevated CAC may not always imply a worse prognosis. Herein, we report the clinical evolution of long-term red wine (RW) drinkers in relation to CAC. We followed 200 healthy male habitual RW drinkers and compared them to 154 abstainers for a period of 5.5 years. The initial evaluation included coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), clinical, demographics, and laboratory data. CAC was quantified by the Agatston score. The follow-up process was conducted by telephone calls and/or hospital record review. The composite end-point of total death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or coronary revascularization (or major adverse cardiac event - MACE) was assessed. The RW drinkers ingested 28.9+/-15 g of alcohol/day for 23.4+/-12.3 years. They had higher high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein, but lower C-reactive protein than abstainers. Age, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and liver enzymes were similar. History of diabetes was lower among drinkers, but other risk factors were similar. However, drinkers had higher CAC than abstainers; the mean value was 131.5+/-362 in drinkers vs 40.5+/-320 in abstainers (P<0.001). The median and interquartile range were 15 (0.0-131.5) in RW drinkers and 1 (0.0-40.5) in abstainers (P=0.003). During the follow-up, MACE was significantly lower in drinkers than in abstainers, despite their higher CAC. The difference was driven mainly by AMI (0 vs 6; P<0.03). Greater CAC values in this setting did not predict worse prognosis. A possible underlying mechanism is lesion calcification, which leads to plaque stabilization and less clinical events.

25 January 2019 In Diabetes

Health benefits of moderate wine consumption have been studied during the past decades, first in observational studies and more recently, in experimental settings and randomized controlled studies. Suggested biological pathways include antioxidant, lipid regulating, and anti-inflammatory effects. Both the alcoholic and polyphenolic components of wine are believed to contribute to these beneficial effects. Although several of these studies demonstrated protective associations between moderate drinking and cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders, and the metabolic syndrome, no conclusive recommendations exist regarding moderate wine consumption. Yet, it is suggested that the physician and patient should discuss alcohol use. In the CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, 224 abstainers with type 2 diabetes were randomized to consume red wine, white wine or mineral water for two years. Here, we summarize our previous findings, offer new evidence concerning the differential effects of wine consumption among men and women, and further suggest that initiating moderate alcohol consumption among well-controlled persons with type 2 diabetes is apparently safe, in regard to changes in heart rate variability and carotid plaque formation.

25 January 2019 In General Health

This study investigated the potential effect of therapeutic doses of acetaminophen (APAP) in combination with light-moderate amounts of alcohol on kidney functions controlling for factors such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity that may predispose the kidney to APAP and/or alcohol toxicity. Secondary analysis of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was performed using SAS 9.4. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing the likelihood that individuals who ingested therapeutic doses of APAP and light-moderate amount of alcohol, compared to those who did not, would have kidney dysfunction were generated from multiple logistics regression models by further controlling for potential predisposing factors namely hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Kidney dysfunction was defined based on self-reports and laboratory examination of serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albumin creatinine ratio (ABCR). Statistically significant increased odds of renal dysfunction were noted among respondents who reported use of therapeutic doses of APAP and light-moderate amount of alcohol [OR(95% CI)=1.64(1.28-2.10) self-report, 2.18(1.81-2.63) SCr, 4.60(3.03-7.00) BUN, 3.14(2.42-4.07) GFR, and 1.71(1.36-2.14) ALBCR)] even after adjusting for hypertension, diabetes and obesity [Adjusted OR (95% CI)=1.78 (1.22-2.58) self-report, 2.05 (1.07-3.92) GFR]. The toxic effects of APAP and alcohol on the kidney were hypothesized. The threshold doses at which these effects begin to occur are unknown. The findings of this study suggest that even therapeutic doses of APAP and light-moderate amount of alcohol could be health problematic if consumed concomitantly.

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