28 June 2016 In Diabetes

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Previous meta-analyses identified an inverse association of total alcohol consumption with the risk of type 2 diabetes. The current study further explored the relationship between specific types of alcoholic beverage and the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases from January 1966 to February 2016 was conducted for prospective cohort studies that assessed the effects of specific types of alcoholic beverage on the risk of type 2 diabetes. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random- or fixed-effect models when appropriate.

RESULTS: 13 prospective studies were included in this meta-analysis, with 397296 study participants and 20641 cases of type 2 diabetes. Relative to no or rare alcohol consumption, wine consumption was associated with a significant reduction of the risk of type 2 diabetes, with the pooled RRs of 0.85, while beer or spirits consumption led to a slight trend of decreasing risk of type 2 diabetes (RR, 0.96, 0.95, respectively). Further dose-response analysis displayed a U-shaped relationship between all three alcohol types and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, the peak risk reduction emerged at 20-30 g/day for wine and beer, at 7-15 g/day for spirits, with a decrease of 20%, 9%, 5% respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with beer or spirits, wine was associated with a more significant decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. This study indicated that wine may be more helpful for protection against type 2 diabetes than beer or spirits. This article is protected by copyright.

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17 May 2016 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Studies on the association between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis have yielded inconsistent results.

OBJECTIVE: The associations of lifetime and 1-y prediagnostic alcohol consumption with relevant prognostic outcomes were evaluated in a large population-based cohort of CRC patients.

DESIGN: In 2003-2010, 3121 patients diagnosed with CRC were interviewed on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, medication, and comorbidities. Cancer recurrence, vital status, and cause of death were documented for a median follow-up time of 4.8 y. With the use of Cox proportional hazard regression, associations between lifetime and recent alcohol consumption and overall, CRC-specific, recurrence-free, and disease-free survival were analyzed.

RESULTS: In this patient cohort with a median age of 69 y at diagnosis, lifetime abstainers showed poorer overall [adjusted HR (aHR): 1.25; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.52] and CRC-specific (aHR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.70) survival than lifetime light drinkers (women: >0-12 g/d; men: >0-24 g/d). Lifetime heavy drinkers showed poorer overall (aHR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.78) and disease-free (aHR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.74) survival. Alcohol abstaining in the year before diagnosis was associated with poorer overall (aHR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), CRC-specific (aHR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.68), and disease-free (aHR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.44) survival. Lifetime abstainers with nonmetastatic disease showed poorer CRC-specific (aHR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.00) and recurrence-free (aHR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.70) survival. Wine abstaining but not beer or liquor abstaining was associated with poorer survival. Associations between alcohol consumption and prognosis varied according to presence of diabetes and age.

CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic alcohol abstaining and heavy drinking were associated with poorer survival after a CRC diagnosis than light drinking. The protective effects of light consumption might be restricted to wine, and associations might differ according to age and presence of diabetes mellitus.

17 May 2016 In Cancer

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that postmenopausal women who increase their alcohol intake over a five year period have a higher risk of breast cancer and a lower risk of coronary heart disease compared with stable alcohol intake.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

SETTING: Denmark, 1993-2012.

PARTICIPANTS: 21?523 postmenopausal women who participated in the Diet, Cancer, and Health Study in two consecutive examinations in 1993-98 and 1999-2003. Information on alcohol intake was obtained from questionnaires completed by participants.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of breast cancer, coronary heart disease, and all cause mortality during 11 years of follow-up. Information was obtained from the Danish Cancer Register, Danish Hospital Discharge Register, Danish Register of Causes of Death, and National Central Person Register. We estimated hazard ratios according to five year change in alcohol intake using Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: During the study, 1054, 1750, and 2080 cases of breast cancer, coronary heart disease, and mortality occurred, respectively. Analyses modelling five year change in alcohol intake with cubic splines showed that women who increased their alcohol intake over the five year period had a higher risk of breast cancer and a lower risk of coronary heart disease than women with a stable alcohol intake. For instance, women who increased their alcohol intake by seven or 14 drinks per week (corresponding to one or two drinks more per day) had hazard ratios of breast cancer of 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.23) and 1.29 (1.07 to 1.55), respectively, compared to women with stable intake, and adjusted for age, education, body mass index, smoking, Mediterranean diet score, parity, number of births, and hormone replacement therapy. For coronary heart disease, corresponding hazard ratios were 0.89 (0.81 to 0.97) and 0.78 (0.64 to 0.95), respectively, adjusted for age, education, body mass index, Mediterranean diet score, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and diabetes. Results among women who reduced their alcohol intake over the five year period were not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer or coronary heart disease. Analyses of all cause mortality showed that women who increased their alcohol intake from a high intake (=14 drinks per week) to an even higher intake had a higher mortality risk that women with a stable high intake.

CONCLUSION: In this study of postmenopausal women over a five year period, results support the hypotheses that alcohol intake is associated with increased risk of breast cancer and decreased risk of coronary heart disease.

22 March 2016 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic index (CMI), calculated as a product of waist-to-height ratio and triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, is a new index for discriminating diabetes mellitus. Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are prone to have other atherosclerotic diseases such as coronary artery disease and stroke. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between CMI and indicators of atherosclerotic progression in patients with PAD.

METHODS: The subjects were 63 outpatients with PAD. Relationships of CMI with variables related to atherosclerotic progression were investigated using multivariate linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance with adjustment for age, sex and histories of smoking and alcohol drinking.

RESULTS: Log-transformed CMI was significantly correlated with mean intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (IMT) (standardized regression coefficient: 0.350, p < 0.01) and % decrease in ankle-brachial systolic pressure index (ABI) after treadmill exercise (standardized regression coefficient: 0.365, p < 0.01). Mean IMT and % decrease in ABI by treadmill exercise were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the group of the 3rd tertile for CMI than in the group of its 1st tertile (mean +/- SE: mean IMT (mm), 0.94 +/- 0.06 (1st tertile) vs. 0.94 +/- 0.06 (2nd tertile) vs. 1.19 +/- 0.06 (3rd tertile); % decrease in ABI, 14.1 +/- 3.4 [1st tertile] vs. 26.0 +/- 3.5 [2nd tertile] vs. 30.0 +/- 3.5 [3rd tertile]).

CONCLUSION: CMI was shown to be associated with the degrees of atherosclerosis in the common carotid artery and ischemia in leg arteries and is therefore a useful discriminator of atherosclerotic progression in patients with PAD.

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