01 February 2017 In Liver Disease

BACKGROUND: Liver damage is a serious and sometimes fatal consequence of long-term alcohol intake, which progresses from early-stage fatty liver (steatosis) to later-stage steatohepatitis with inflammation and fibrosis/necrosis. However, very little is known about earlier stages of liver disruption that may occur in problem drinkers, those who drink excessively but are not dependent on alcohol.

METHODS: We examined how repeated binge-like alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice altered liver function, as compared with a single binge-intake session and with repeated moderate alcohol consumption. We measured a number of markers associated with early- and later-stage liver disruption, including liver steatosis, measures of liver cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alcohol metabolism, expression of cytokine mRNA, accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) as an indicator of oxidative stress, and alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase as a measure of hepatocyte injury.

RESULTS: Importantly, repeated binge-like alcohol drinking increased triglyceride levels in the liver and plasma, and increased lipid droplets in the liver, indicators of steatosis. In contrast, a single binge-intake session or repeated moderate alcohol consumption did not alter triglyceride levels. In addition, alcohol exposure can increase rates of alcohol metabolism through CYP2E1 and ADH, which can potentially increase oxidative stress and liver dysfunction. Intermittent, excessive alcohol intake increased liver CYP2E1 mRNA, protein, and activity, as well as ADH mRNA and activity. Furthermore, repeated, binge-like drinking, but not a single binge or moderate drinking, increased alcohol metabolism. Finally, repeated, excessive intake transiently elevated mRNA for the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1B and 4-HNE levels, but did not alter markers of later-stage liver hepatocyte injury.

CONCLUSIONS: Together, we provide data suggesting that even relatively limited binge-like alcohol drinking can lead to disruptions in liver function, which might facilitate the transition to more severe forms of liver damage.

15 December 2016 In Diabetes
Background Although alcohol consumption is commonly encountered in clinical practice, few studies have investigated the clinical significance of alcohol intake on the use of the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level. Objectives This study was performed to investigate the association between alcohol intake and HbA1c level in the general population. Methods Among the 24,594 participants who participated in the 2011-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 12,923 participants were analyzed in this study. We excluded diabetic patients currently taking antidiabetes medication. We compared the HbA1c level and proportions of patients with an HbA1c level of =5.7%, =6.1%, and =6.5% according to the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration range and the amount of alcohol intake. The average amounts of daily alcohol intake were categorized into three groups: 0 g/day,
15 December 2016 In Cardiovascular System

Alcohol is popular in Western culture, supported by a perception that modest intake is cardioprotective. However, excessive drinking has detrimental implications for cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) following an alcohol binge or the "holiday heart syndrome" is well characterized. However, more modest levels of alcohol intake on a regular basis may also increase the risk of AF. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the relationship between alcohol and AF may include direct toxicity and alcohol's contribution to obesity, sleep-disordered breathing, and hypertension. We aim to provide a comprehensive review of the epidemiology and pathophysiology by which alcohol may be responsible for AF and determine whether alcohol abstinence is required for patients with AF.

27 October 2016 In Diabetes

OBJECTIVE: To generate evidence-based conclusions about the effect of wine consumption on weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation and distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes.

DESIGN: In the 2-year randomized controlled CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, patients following a Mediterranean diet were randomly assigned to drink 150 ml of mineral water, white wine or red wine with dinner for 2 years. Visceral adiposity and abdominal fat distribution were measured in a subgroup of sixty-five participants, using abdominal MRI.

SETTING: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Soroka-Medical Center and the Nuclear Research Center Negev, Israel.

SUBJECTS: Alcohol-abstaining adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes.

RESULTS: Forty-eight participants (red wine, n 27; mineral water, n 21) who completed a second MRI measurement were included in the 2-year analysis. Similar weight losses (sd) were observed: red wine 1.3 (3.9) kg; water 1.0 (4.2) kg (P=0.8 between groups). Changes (95 % CI) in abdominal adipose-tissue distribution were similar: red wine, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) -3.0 (-8.0, 2.0) %, deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT) +5.2 (-1.1, 11.6) %, superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) -1.9 (-5.0, 1.2) %; water, VAT -3.2 (-8.9, 2.5) %, DSAT +2.9 (-2.8, 8.6) %, SSAT -0.15 (-3.3, 2.9) %. No changes in antidiabetic medication and no substantial changes in energy intake (+126 (sd 2889) kJ/d (+30.2 (sd 690) kcal/d), P=0.8) were recorded. A 2-year decrease in glycated Hb (beta=0.28, P=0.05) was associated with a decrease in VAT.

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate wine consumption, as part of a Mediterranean diet, in persons with controlled diabetes did not promote weight gain or abdominal adiposity.

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