06 May 2014 In Diabetes

Although moderate alcohol intake in diabetic Caucasians is associated with a reduction in coronary heart disease mortality, no study in Japanese with diabetes has examined the association between alcohol intake and mortality outcomes. We analyzed the relationship between alcohol intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality using the database from NIPPON DATA80. At the baseline in 1980, data on history, lifestyle, and physical examinations were collected on study participants aged 30 years and older from randomly selected areas in Japan. After excluding participants with comorbidities, we followed 4,018 male participants (3,614 nondiabetics, 195 with impaired glucose tolerance and 209 diabetic) for 19 years. During the 19 years of follow-up, there were 990 deaths; 328 were from cardiovascular disease and 157 from all-heart diseases. With the never-drinking category serving as a reference, the Cox multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for non-daily and daily drinkers for cardiovascular mortality were 0.43 (95% confidence intervals: 0.19-0.95) and 0.45 (0.25-0.80), respectively, and 0.33 (0.12-0.91) and 0.31 (0.15-0.67) for all-heart disease mortality in the combined impaired glucose tolerance and diabetic Japanese men. Alcohol drinking in men with glucose intolerance was associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular and all-heart disease mortality as seen in the general population in Japan.

06 May 2014 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: The association between body-mass-index (BMI), alcohol consumption and their joint effect in increasing the risk of elevated serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) is unclear in older community-dwelling adults. AIM: To determine the association between alcohol, BMI, and their combined effect with serum ALT and AST in older community-dwelling adults in the United States.

METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study in participants (n = 2364) from the Rancho Bernardo Study (54% women; mean age: 70 years, BMI: 25 kg/m(2), alcohol users: 63%) who attended a research visit in 1984-87. BMI was recorded by a trained nurse and alcohol use ascertained by a validated questionnaire. Odds-ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of elevated serum ALT and AST (defined as > or =30 U/L in men and > or =19 U/L in women) were calculated for alcohol and BMI separately and their joint exposure using logistic regression models.

RESULTS: In multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, alcohol use, total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus, obesity independently increased the odds of elevated ALT in this cohort of older men and women by 3.0 (95% CI, 1.7-5.3) and 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-2.7) respectively. Joint effects of consuming >3 alcoholic drinks/day and obesity raised the odds of elevated ALT by 8.9 (95% CI, 2.4-33.1) and AST by 21-fold (95% CI, 2.6-170.1), demonstrating synergism. Obese participants had higher odds of elevated ALT even at 0 < or = 1 drink/day.

CONCLUSIONS: In older men and women, the combination of obesity with alcohol is synergistic in increasing the risk of liver injury.

06 May 2014 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: The U-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and diabetes mellitus was observed among western populations. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the association in Chinese. We aimed to investigate the associations of alcohol consumption with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) among middle-aged and elderly Chinese.

METHODS: We examined 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50 to 70 from Beijing and Shanghai China in a cross-sectional survey. Fasting glucose, adipokines and markers of inflammation were measured. Macronutrients and alcohol consumption were assessed with standardized questionnaires.

RESULTS: Compared with abstainers, alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of having diabetes mellitus in women (OR: 0.41, 95%CI: 0.22-0.78) after controlling for socio-demographic factors, physical activity, smoking, family income, family history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes, macronutrients intake, body mass index, and markers of inflammation and adipokines. In men, both low and high alcohol consumptions were associated with increased risks of having combined diabetes and IFG (ORs 1.36 [95%CI: 1.02-1.82] and 1.50 [95%CI: 1.04-2.15], respectively]. In the multivariable stratified analyses among men, moderate drinkers who had drinking days of >/= 5 days/week had a deceased likelihood (OR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.37-0.98) and liquor drinkers had an increased likelihood (OR: 1.47, 95%CI: 1.09-1.98) of having combined diabetes and IFG respectively, compared with the abstainers.

CONCLUSIONS: An approximately J-shaped association was observed between alcohol consumption and combined diabetes and IFG among men compared with abstainers in Chinese. Whether moderate alcohol intake could help decrease diabetic risk among Chinese people warrants further investigation.

06 May 2014 In Diabetes

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This systematic review examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and long-term complications of type 2 diabetes. Meta-analyses could only be performed for total mortality, mortality from CHD, and CHD incidence, because the availability of articles on other complications was too limited.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search through to September 2005 was performed and the reference lists of relevant articles examined. Among the relevant articles there were six cohort studies reporting on the risk of total mortality and/or fatal and/or incident CHD in alcohol non-consumers and in at least two groups of alcohol consumers.

RESULTS: Statistical pooling showed lower risks in alcohol consumers than in non-consumers (the reference category). The relative risk (RR) of total mortality was 0.64 (95% CI 0.49-0.82) in the or =18 g/day), the RRs of total mortality were not significant. Risks of fatal and total CHD were significantly lower in all three categories of alcohol consumers (<6, 6 to or =18 g/day) than in non-consumers, with RRs ranging from 0.34 to 0.75.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This meta-analysis shows that, as with findings in the general population, moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of mortality and CHD in type 2 diabetic populations.

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