22 March 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents.

METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample.

RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer.

CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research.

22 March 2016 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Although considerable research describes the cardiovascular effects of habitual moderate and heavy alcohol consumption, the immediate risks following alcohol intake have not been well characterized. Based on its physiological effects, alcohol may have markedly different effects on immediate and long-term risk.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched CINAHL, Embase, and PubMed from inception to March 12, 2015, supplemented with manual screening for observational studies assessing the association between alcohol intake and cardiovascular events in the following hours and days. We calculated pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for the association between alcohol intake and myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke using DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models to model any alcohol intake or dose-response relationships of alcohol intake and cardiovascular events. Among 1056 citations and 37 full-text articles reviewed, 23 studies (29 457 participants) were included. Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with an immediately higher cardiovascular risk that was attenuated after 24 hours, and even protective for myocardial infarction and hemorrhagic stroke (approximately 2-4 drinks: relative risk=30% lower risk) and protective against ischemic stroke within 1 week (approximately 6 drinks: 19% lower risk). In contrast, heavy alcohol drinking was associated with higher cardiovascular risk in the following day (approximately 6-9 drinks: relative risk=1.3-2.3) and week (approximately 19-30 drinks: relative risk=2.25-6.2).

CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be a consistent finding of an immediately higher cardiovascular risk following any alcohol consumption, but, by 24 hours, only heavy alcohol intake conferred continued risk.

26 November 2015 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori are major carcinogen of gastric cancer, but the associations among gastric cancer, H. pylori infection status, and alcohol consumption are not fully described. This study aimed to clarify how H. pylori infection status affects the association between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk.

METHODS: We selected 949 case-cohort participants from the 18 863 Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) populations. Gastric cancer incidence inside and outside of the subcohort were 12 and 254 cases, respectively. Seropositivities for CagA, VacA, and H. pylori infection were determined by performing immunoblot assays. Weighted Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS: Relative to non-drinking, heavy drinking (7 times a week), and binge drinking (55 g alcohol intake per occasion) showed a 3.48-fold (95% CI, 1.13-10.73) and 3.27-fold (95% CI, 1.01-10.56) higher risk in subjects not previously infected by H. pylori. There was no significant association between drinking pattern and gastric cancer risk in H. pylori IgG seropositive subjects. An increased risk for gastric cancer in heavy- and binge-drinking subjects were also present in subjects not infected by CagA- or VacA-secreting H. pylori.

CONCLUSIONS: Heavy and binge alcohol consumption is an important risk factor related to an increasing incidence of gastric cancer in a population not infected by H. pylori.

16 October 2015 In Social and Cultural Aspects

BACKGROUND: To estimate the incidence of hazardous drinking in middle-aged people during an economic recession and ascertain whether individual job loss and contextual changes in unemployment influence the incidence rate in that period.

METHODS: Longitudinal study based on two waves of the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Individuals aged 50-64 years from 11 European countries, who were not hazardous drinkers at baseline (n = 7,615), were selected for this study. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hazardous drinking (>/=40g and >/=20g of pure alcohol on average in men and women, respectively) between 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, in the statistical analysis, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted and obtained Risk Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI).

RESULTS: Over a 6-year period, 505 subjects became hazardous drinkers, with cumulative incidence of 6.6 per 100 persons between 2006 and 2012 (95%CI:6.1-7.2). Age [RR = 1.02 (95%CI:1.00-1.04)] and becoming unemployed [RR = 1.55 (95%CI:1.08-2.23)] were independently associated with higher risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conversely, having poorer self-perceived health was associated with lower risk of becoming a hazardous drinker [RR = 0.75 (95%CI:0.60-0.95)]. At country-level, an increase in the unemployment rate during the study period [RR = 1.32 (95%CI:1.17-1.50)] and greater increases in the household disposable income [RR = 0.97 (95%CI:0.95-0.99)] were associated with risk of becoming a hazardous drinker.

CONCLUSIONS: Job loss among middle-aged individuals during the economic recession was positively associated with becoming a hazardous drinker. Changes in country-level variables were also related to this drinking pattern.

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