27 April 2023 In General Health
Previous cohort studies have reported conflicting associations between alcohol consumption and chronic kidney disease, characterized by proteinuria and low glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This systematic review, which included 14,634,940 participants from 11 cohort studies, assessed a dose-dependent association of alcohol consumption and incidence of proteinuria and low estimated GFR (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Compared with non-drinkers, the incidence of proteinuria was lower in drinkers with alcohol consumption of =12.0 g/day (relative risk 0.87 [95% confidence interval 0.83, 0.92]), but higher in drinkers with alcohol consumption of 36.1-60.0 g/day (1.09 [1.03, 1.15]), suggesting a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and the incidence of proteinuria. Incidence of low eGFR was lower in drinkers with alcohol consumption of =12.0 and 12.1-36.0 than in non-drinkers (=12.0, 12.1-36.0, and 36.1-60.0 g/day: 0.93 [0.90, 0.95], 0.82 [0.78, 0.86], and 0.89 [0.77, 1.03], respectively), suggesting that drinkers were at lower risk of low eGFR. In conclusion, compared with non-drinkers, mild drinkers were at lower risk of proteinuria and low eGFR, whereas heavy drinkers had a higher risk of proteinuria but a lower risk of low eGFR. The clinical impact of high alcohol consumption should be assessed in well-designed studies.
31 March 2023 In Dementia

IMPORTANCE: The impact of serial changes in alcohol consumption on dementia risk has rarely been investigated to date. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of comprehensive patterns of changes in alcohol consumption with the incidence of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a retrospective cohort study.

Data were obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Adults aged 40 years and older underwent 2 health examinations in 2009 and 2011. The cohort was assessed until December 31, 2018, and statistical analysis was performed in December 2021. EXPOSURES: Alcohol consumption level was categorized into none (0 g per day), mild (/=30 g per day) drinking. On the basis of changes in alcohol consumption level from 2009 to 2011, participants were categorized into the following groups: nondrinker, quitter, reducer, sustainer, and increaser.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was newly diagnosed AD, VaD, or other dementia.

RESULTS: Among 3 933 382 participants (mean [SD] age, 55.0 [9.6] years; 2 037 948 men [51.8%]), during a mean (SD) follow-up of 6.3 (0.7) years, there were 100 282 cases of all-cause dementia, 79 982 cases of AD, and 11 085 cases of VaD. Compared with sustained nondrinking, sustained mild (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.77-0.81) and moderate (aHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.79-0.88) drinking were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause dementia, whereas sustained heavy drinking was associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia (aHR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12).

Compared with sustained levels of drinking, reducing alcohol consumption from a heavy to a moderate level (aHR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99) and the initiation of mild alcohol consumption (aHR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.96) were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause dementia.

Increasers and quitters exhibited an increased risk of all-cause dementia compared with sustainers. The trends in AD and VaD remained consistent. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study of a Korean population, decreased risk of dementia was associated with maintaining mild to moderate alcohol consumption, reducing alcohol consumption from a heavy to a moderate level, and the initiation of mild alcohol consumption, suggesting that the threshold of alcohol consumption for dementia risk reduction is low.

07 February 2023 In Drinking Patterns

Alcohol drinking patterns may determine the risk of hypertension and may also modify the detrimental effect of high alcohol intake. We prospectively evaluated the effect of the Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern and its interaction with the amount of alcohol consumed on the incidence of arterial hypertension. In the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort, we followed-up 13,805 participants, all of them initially free of hypertension, during a maximum period of 16 years.

Information about diet, chronic diseases, lifestyle and newly diagnosed hypertension was collected using validated questionnaires. We used a 7-item score (0 to 9 points) that jointly considered moderate alcohol consumption, distributed over the week, with meals, and a preference for red wine and avoidance of binge-drinking.

During 142,404 person-years of follow-up, 1443 incident cases of hypertension were identified. Low adherence (score < 2) to the Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern was significantly associated with a higher incidence of hypertension (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.99) as compared to the high-adherence (score > 7) category. Among alcohol consumers, a high adherence to the MADP is associated with a lower incidence of hypertension. Compared with abstinence, a high adherence did not seem to differ regarding its effect on hypertension risk.

23 November 2022 In Pregnant Women

BACKGROUND: This hypothesis-testing study evaluated the relationship between fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and neurodevelopmental disorder (ND) diagnoses within the Independent Healthcare Research Database (IHRD).

METHODS: De-identified eligibility and claim healthcare records prospectively generated from the 1990-2012 Florida Medicaid system were analyzed using SAS software. There were 89,766 children continuously eligible with >/=10 outpatient office visits during the 120 month period following birth in the cohort examined. A total of 321 children were diagnosed with FAS. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 922), tics (n = 551), attention deficit disorder/attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) (n = 20,260), mental retardation (MR) (n = 915), and specific delays in development (SDD) (n = 24,630) incidence rates were examined using frequency risk ratio (RR) and logistic regression models.

RESULTS: The incidence rate of tics (RR = 5.68), ADD/ADHD (RR = 2.30), MR (RR = 7.83), SDD (RR = 2.88), and ASD (RR = 6.74) were significantly increased among FAS diagnosed children as compared to undiagnosed children. Adjusted (for gender, race, residency, and date of birth) odds ratios (ORs) were significantly increased for tics (OR = 4.87), ADD/ADHD (OR = 3.40), MR (OR = 7.91), SDD (OR = 9.56), and ASD (OR = 6.87) when comparing the FAS diagnosed children to undiagnosed children.

CONCLUSION: Tens of thousands of American children with lifetime costs in the billions of US dollars were estimated to be impacted by FAS-associated NDs. These impacts are particularly tragic because FAS is dependent upon lifestyle.

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