06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: Studies on alcohol intake in relation to endometrial cancer risk have produced inconsistent results.

METHODS: For a meta-analysis, we identified cohort studies of alcohol and endometrial cancer by a literature search of Pub-Med and Embase up to 1 March 2010 and by searching the reference lists of relevant articles.

RESULTS: Seven cohort studies, including 1,511,661 participants and 6086 endometrial cancer cases, were included in the dose-response random-effect meta-regression model. Compared with non-drinkers, women drinking less than 1 drink of alcohol (13 g of ethanol) per day had a lower risk for endometrial cancer; this risk was lower by 4% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.93-1.00) for consumption up to 0.5 drink per day and by 7% (95% CI: 0.85-1.02) for consumption up to 1 drink. However, we found evidence of an increased risk for endometrial cancer for intakes higher than two alcoholic drinks per day: compared with non-drinkers, the risk was higher by 14% (95% CI: 0.95-1.36) for 2-2.5 drinks per day and by 25% (95% CI: 0.98-1.58) for >2.5 drinks per day.

CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis indicates a possible J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and endometrial cancer risk.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol intake is a strong and well established risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but the association with oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OA) or adjacent tumours of the oesophagogastric junction (OGJA), remains unclear. Therefore, the association of alcohol intake with OSCC, OA, and OGJA was determined in nine case-control studies and two cohort studies of the Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information was collected on alcohol intake, age, sex, education, body mass index, gastro-oesophageal reflux, and tobacco smoking from each study. Along with 10 854 controls, 1821 OA, and 1837 OGJA, seven studies also collected OSCC cases (n=1016). Study specific ORs and 95% CIs were calculated from multivariate adjusted logistic regression models for alcohol intake in categories compared to non-drinkers. Summary risk estimates were obtained by random effects models.

RESULTS: No increase was observed in the risk of OA or OGJA for increasing levels of any of the alcohol intake measures examined. ORs for the highest frequency category (>/=7 drinks per day) were 0.97 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.36) for OA and 0.77 (95% CI = 0.54 to 1.10) for OGJA. Suggestive findings linked moderate intake (eg, 0.5 to /=7 drinks per day 9.62, 95% CI 4.26 to 21.71).

CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to OSCC, higher alcohol consumption was not associated with increased risk of either OA or OGJA. The apparent inverse association observed with moderate alcohol intake should be evaluated in future prospective studies.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




Studies have indicated hazardous consumption of large quantities of alcohol among adults in Lithuania. We assessed the associations of alcohol consumption at baseline with cancer incidence among men in a population-based cohort study, using Cox models adjusted for smoking, education and body mass index. Attained age was used as a time-scale. During follow-up (1978-2008) 1,698 men developed cancer. A higher amount of alcohol consumption (>/=140.1 g/week vs. 0.1-10.0 g/week) was positively associated with increased risk of total cancer [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 1.11, 1.65], upper aerodigestive tract cancer (HR = 2.79, 95 % CI 1.23, 6.34) and alcohol-related cancers (i.e. oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, colorectal and liver cancer) (HR = 1.88, 95 % CI 1.25, 2.85). Compared to occasional drinkers (a few times/year), drinkers 2-7 times/week showed an increased risk of total (HR = 1.45, 95 % CI 1.16, 1.83), alcohol-related (HR = 1.83 95 % CI 1.14, 2.93) and other cancers (HR = 1.35, 95 % CI 1.04, 1.76). Our results showed no statistically significant associations between quantity of alcohol intake per one occasion and risk of cancer. About 13 % of total, 35 % of upper aerodigestive tract, 22 % of alcohol-related and 10 % of other cancer cases were due to alcohol consumption in this cohort of men.




06 May 2014 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse.

METHODS:We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and nutrition, a multi-centre prospective cohort study including 142 605 men and 335 873. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was examined using a score (range: 0-9) considering the combined intake of fruits and nuts, vegetables, legumes, cereals, lipids, fish, dairy products, meat products, and alcohol. Association with cancer incidence was assessed through Cox regression modelling, controlling for potential confounders.

RESULTS: In all, 9669 incident cancers in men and 21 062 in women were identified. A lower overall cancer risk was found among individuals with greater adherence to Mediterranean diet (hazard ratio=0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98) for a two-point increment of the Mediterranean diet score. The apparent inverse association was stronger for smoking-related cancers than for cancers not known to be related to tobacco (P (heterogeneity)=0.008). In all, 4.7% of cancers among men and 2.4% in women would be avoided in this population if study subjects had a greater adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern.

CONCLUSION:Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern could reduce overall cancer risk.

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 5 April 2011; doi (2011) 0, 000-000. doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.106 www.bjcancer.com

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