06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested an inconsistent relationship between alcohol drinking and risk of all cancer mortality. As far as we know, no meta-analysis has been conducted to explore this issue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a PubMed search to find relevant articles published before April 2012 in English. Categorical and dose-response meta-analyses were conducted to identify the impact of alcohol drinking on all cancer mortality. Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression and stratification analyses. Sensitivity and cumulative meta-analyses were also carried out. RESULTS: Eighteen independent cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Compared with non/occasional drinkers, the pooled relative risks (RRs) were 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.94] for light, 1.02 (95% CI 0.99-1.06) for moderate, and 1.31 (95% CI 1.23-1.39) for heavy drinkers. Former drinkers presented a higher risk (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.15-1.50) than current drinkers (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.98-1.16). There was a J-shaped relationship between all cancer mortality and alcohol consumption in males but not in females. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis confirms the health hazards of heavy drinking (>/=50 g/day) and benefits of light drinking (</=12.5 g/day). Large-sample, well-designed, prospective epidemiological studies, especially on heavy drinking among women, should be developed in future.




06 May 2014 In Cancer

Background:Many epidemiological studies have investigated the association between folate intake, circulating folate level and risk of breast cancer; however, the findings were inconsistent between the studies.

Methods: We searched the PubMed and MEDLINE databases updated to January, 2014 and performed the systematic review and meta-analysis of the published epidemiological studies to assess the associations between folate intake level, circulating folate level and the overall risk of breast cancer.

Results:In all, 16 eligible prospective studies with a total of 744 068 participants and 26 205 breast cancer patients and 26 case-control studies with a total of 16 826 cases and 21 820 controls that have evaluated the association between folate intake and breast cancer risk were identified. Pooled analysis of the prospective studies and case-control studies suggested a potential nonlinearity relationship for dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk.

Prospective studies indicated a U-shaped relationship for the dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk. Women with daily dietary folate intake between 153 and 400 mug showed a significant reduced breast cancer risk compared with those 400 mug. The case-control studies also suggested a significantly negative correlation between the dietary folate intake level and the breast cancer risk. Increased dietary folate intake reduced breast cancer risk for women with higher alcohol intake level, but not for those with lower alcohol intake. No significant association between circulating folate level and breast cancer risk was found when the results of 8 identified studies with 5924 participants were pooled.

Conclusions:Our studies suggested that folate may have preventive effects against breast cancer risk, especially for those with higher alcohol consumption level; however, the dose and timing are critical and more studies are warranted to further elucidate the questions.

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 25 March 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.155 www.bjcancer.com




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