27 July 2018 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: Microglial activation contributes to the neuropathology associated with chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal, including the expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes. In the current study, we examined the transcriptome of primary rat microglial cells following incubation with alcohol alone, or alcohol together with a robust inflammatory stimulus.

METHODS: Primary microglia were prepared from mixed rat glial cultures. Cells were incubated with 75 mM ethanol alone or with proinflammatory cytokines ("TII": IL1beta, IFNgamma, and TNFalpha). Isolated mRNA was used for RNAseq analysis and qPCR. Effects of alcohol on phagocytosis were determined by uptake of oligomeric amyloid beta.

RESULTS: Alcohol induced nitrite production in control cells and increased nitrite production in cells co-treated with TII. RNAseq analysis of microglia exposed for 24 h to alcohol identified 312 differentially expressed mRNAs ("Alc-DEs"), with changes confirmed by qPCR analysis. Gene ontology analysis identified phagosome as one of the highest-ranking KEGG pathways including transcripts regulating phagocytosis. Alcohol also increased several complement-related mRNAs that have roles in phagocytosis, including C1qa, b, and c; C3; and C3aR1. RNAseq analysis identified over 3000 differentially expressed mRNAs in microglia following overnight incubation with TII; and comparison to the group of Alc-DEs revealed 87 mRNAs modulated by alcohol but not by TII, including C1qa, b, and c. Consistent with observed changes in phagocytosis-related mRNAs, the uptake of amyloid beta1-42, by primary microglia, was reduced by alcohol.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results define alterations that occur to microglial gene expression following alcohol exposure and suggest that alcohol effects on phagocytosis could contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease.

27 July 2018 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking prevalence rates are highest in young adults; however, little is known about the effects of binge drinking on blood pressure (BP) and other cardiovascular health metrics in individuals between 18 and 45 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of regular binge drinking on BP, lipid and glucose levels and to determine if there were differences in these associations between men and women.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from NHANES (the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for men and women 18 to 45 years old who were non-binge drinkers, binge drank 1 to 12 times, or binge drank >12 times in the past year. After controlling for diet and physical activity, both categories of men binge drinkers compared with non-binge drinkers had higher systolic BP (121.8 and 119.0 mm Hg versus 117.5 mm Hg) and total cholesterol (215.5 and 217.9 mg/dL versus 207.8 mg/dL) values. There were no effects of binge drinking on systolic BP or total cholesterol in women. Binge drinking in men and women was associated with higher high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol values. The effects of binge drinking on glucose parameters in men and women were variable.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with young adult women, repeated binge drinking in men was associated with an elevated systolic BP, and greater frequency of binge drinking in men was associated with a more unfavorable lipid profile. In young adults with elevated systolic BP, practitioners should consider the possible role of binge drinking and address the importance of reducing alcohol intake as an important cardiovascular risk reduction strategy.

01 February 2017 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

Worldwide, binge drinking is a major public health problem. The popularized health risks associated with binge drinking include physical injury and motor vehicle crashes; less attention has been given to the negative effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. The primary aims of this review were to provide a summary of the adverse effects of binge drinking on the risk and development of CV disease and to review potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. Using specific inclusion criteria, an integrative review was conducted that included data from human experimental, prospective cross-sectional, and cohort epidemiological studies that examined the association between binge drinking and CV conditions such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and arrhythmias. Studies were identified that examined the relationship between binge drinking and CV outcomes. Collectively, findings support that binge drinking is associated with a higher risk of pre-hypertension, hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke in middle-aged and older adults. Binge drinking may also have adverse CV effects in young adults (aged 18-30). Mechanisms remain incompletely understood; however, available evidence suggests that binge drinking may induce oxidative stress and vascular injury and be pro-atherogenic. Public health messages regarding binge drinking need to include the effects of binge drinking on the cardiovascular system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

01 February 2017 In Cardiovascular System

Worldwide, binge drinking is a major public health problem. The popularized health risks associated with binge drinking include physical injury and motor vehicle crashes; less attention has been given to the negative effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. The primary aims of this review were to provide a summary of the adverse effects of binge drinking on the risk and development of CV disease and to review potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. Using specific inclusion criteria, an integrative review was conducted that included data from human experimental, prospective cross-sectional, and cohort epidemiological studies that examined the association between binge drinking and CV conditions such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and arrhythmias. Studies were identified that examined the relationship between binge drinking and CV outcomes. Collectively, findings support that binge drinking is associated with a higher risk of pre-hypertension, hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke in middle-aged and older adults. Binge drinking may also have adverse CV effects in young adults (aged 18-30). Mechanisms remain incompletely understood; however, available evidence suggests that binge drinking may induce oxidative stress and vascular injury and be pro-atherogenic. Public health messages regarding binge drinking need to include the effects of binge drinking on the cardiovascular system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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